Effect of calcium lactate on compressive strength and self-healing of cracks in microbial concrete

  • Kunamineni VijayEmail author
  • Meena Murmu
Research Article


This paper presents the effect on compressive strength and self-healing capability of bacterial concrete with the addition of calcium lactate. Compared to normal concrete, bacterial concrete possesses higher durability and engineering concrete properties. The production of calcium carbonate in bacterial concrete is limited to the calcium content in cement. Hence calcium lactate is externally added to be an additional source of calcium in the concrete. The influence of this addition on compressive strength, self-healing capability of cracks is highlighted in this study. The bacterium used in the study is bacillus subtilis and was added to both spore powder form and culture form to the concrete. Bacillus subtilis spore powder of 2 million cfu/g concentration with 0.5% cement was mixed to concrete. Calcium lactates with concentrations of 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%, and 2.5% of cement, was added to the concrete mixes to test the effect on properties of concrete. In other samples, cultured bacillus subtilis with a concentration of 1×105 cells/mL was mixed with concrete, to study the effect of bacteria in the cultured form on the properties of concrete. Cubes of 100 mm×100 mm×100 mm were used for the study. These cubes were tested after a curing period of 7, 14 and 28 d. A maximum of 12% increase in compressive strength was observed with the addition of 0.5% of calcium lactate in concrete. Scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy examination showed the formation of ettringite in pores; calcium silicate hydrates and calcite which made the concrete denser. A statistical technique was applied to analyze the experimental data of the compressive strengths of cementations materials. Response surface methodology was adopted for optimizing the experimental data. The regression equation was yielded by the application of response surface methodology relating response variables to input parameters. This method aids in predicting the experimental results accurately with an acceptable range of error. Findings of this investigation indicated the influence of added calcium lactate in bio-concrete which is quite impressive for improving the compressive strength and self-healing properties of concrete.


calcium lactate bacillus subtilis compressive strength self-healing of cracks 


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Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringNational Institute of TechnologyRaipurIndia

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