Frontiers in Energy

, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 591–622 | Cite as

State-of-art review of the optimization methods to design the configuration of hybrid renewable energy systems (HRESs)

  • Maurizio Faccio
  • Mauro Gamberi
  • Marco Bortolini
  • Mojtaba NedaeiEmail author
Review Article


The current research aims to present an inclusive review of latest research works performed with the aim of improving the efficiency of the hybrid renewable energy systems (HRESs) by employing diverse ranges of the optimization techniques, which aid the designers to achieve the minimum expected total cost, while satisfying the power demand and the reliability. For this purpose, a detailed analysis of the different classification drivers considering the design factors such as the optimization goals, utilized optimization methods, grid type as well as the investigated technology has been conducted. Initial results have indicated that among all optimization goals, load demand parameters including loss of power supply probability (LPSP) and loss of load probability (LLP), cost, sizing (configuration), energy production, and environmental emissions are the most frequent design variables which have been cited the most. Another result of this paper indicates that almost 70% of the research projects have been dedicated towards the optimization of the off-grid applications of the HRESs. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that, integration of the PV, wind and battery is the most frequent configuration. In the next stage of the paper, a review concerning the sizing methods is also carried out to outline the most common techniques which are used to configure the components of the HRESs. In this regard, an analysis covering the optimized indicators such as the cost drivers, energy index parameters, load indicators, battery’s state of charge, PV generator area, design parameters such as the LPSP, and the wind power generation to load ratio, is also performed.


hybrid renewable energy systems (HRESs) design and optimization environmental pollutions PV array wind turbines (WTs) inverter diesel generator (DG) 


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Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maurizio Faccio
    • 1
  • Mauro Gamberi
    • 2
  • Marco Bortolini
    • 2
  • Mojtaba Nedaei
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Management and EngineeringUniversity of PaduaVicenzaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Industrial EngineeringUniversity of BolognaBolognaItaly

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