Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Separation of cerium(IV) and yttrium(III) from citrate medium by solvent extraction using D2EHPA in kerosene

  • 22 Accesses


The extraction and separation of cerium(IV) and yttrium(III) from citric acid solution using Di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid, D2EHPA, in kerosene was investigated. The effects of the different parameters on the extraction process, including the shaking time, extractant concentration, phase ratio, acid concentration as well as, temperature, were separately investigated to achieve the maximum possible separation between Ce(IV) and Y(III). The extraction constant was modeled based on the most predominant citrate cationic species at pH 4.0. The stoichiometry of the extracted species was found to be [Ce(H2Cit)2·2A(HA)] and [Y(H2Cit)·2A(HA)], (where HA denotes D2EHPA), based on the slope analysis method applied on the obtained results. The mean conditional extraction constants values KC.ex were found to be 4.15 × 102 ± 0.05 and 5.36 ± 0.28 × 103 for Ce(IV) and Y(III), respectively. The thermodynamic functions associated with the extraction reaction were evaluated and discussed. It was found that the extraction process is spontaneous and exothermic for both metal ions. Possible separation of Y(III) from Ce(IV) was given in terms of the separation factors at different extraction conditions.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10


  1. Abu Elgoud EM, Ismail ZH, El-Nadi YA, Abdelwahab SM, Aly HF (2019) Extraction of some rare earth elements (La, Pr and Er) from citrate medium using D2EHPA in kerosene. Arab J Nucl Sci Appl 52:74–85

  2. Binnemans K, Jones PT, Blanpain B, Gerven TV, Yang Y, Walton A, Buchert M (2013) Recycling of rare earths: a critical review. J Clean Prod 51:1–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.12.037

  3. Binnemans K, Jones PT, Blanpain B, Gerven TV, Pontikes Y (2015) Towards zero-waste valorisation of rare-earth-containing industrial process residues: a critical review. J Clean Prod 99:17–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.02.089

  4. Charles FB, Rabert EM (1976) The hydrolysis of cations. Wiley-Interscience Publication, Wiley, New York. https://doi.org/10.1002/bbpc.19770810252

  5. Davarkhah R, Farahmand Asl E, Samadfam M, Tavasoli M, Zaheri P, Shamsipur M (2018) Selective separation of yttrium(III) through a liquid membrane system using 2-thenoyltrifuoroacetone as an extractant carrier. Chem Pap 72:1487. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11696-018-0407-9

  6. Emsley J (2011) Nature’s building blocks: an A-Z guide to the elements. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 120–125

  7. Gasser MS, Ismail ZH, Abu Elgoud EM, Abdel Hai F, Ali OI, Aly HF (2019) Process for lanthanides-Y(III) leaching from phosphogypsum fertilizers using weak acids. J Hazard Mater. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.120762

  8. Jha MK, Kumari A, Panda R, Kumar JR, Yoo K, Lee JY (2016) Review on hydrometallurgical recovery of rare earth metals. Hydrometallurgy 165:2–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hydromet.2016.01.003

  9. Khaironiel MT, Markom M, Meor Yusoff MS, Nazaratul Ashifa S (2014) Solvent extraction of light rare earth ions using D2EHPA from nitric acid and sulphuric acid solutions. Adv Mater Res 970:209–213. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.970.209

  10. Li DQ (2017) A review on yttrium solvent extraction chemistry and separation process. J Rare Earths 35:107–119. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0721(17)60888-3

  11. Li DQ (2019) Development course of separating rare earths with acid phosphorus extractants: a critical review. J Rare Earths 37:468–486. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jre.2018.07.016

  12. Lide DR (2004) Handbook of chemistry and physics, 84th edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton

  13. Lim TM, Levins DM, Wiblin WA, Tran T (1996) Kinetic studies of solvent extraction of rare earths into DEHPA. In: The 14th international solvent extraction conference (ISEC’96), Melbourne, Australia, March 19–23, vol 1, p 445

  14. Marczenko Z (1976) Spectrophotometric determination of elements. Ellis Harwood Ltd, Wrocław

  15. Michelsen OD, Smutz M (1971) Separation of yttrium, holmium and herbium with di-2-ethylhexyl-phosphoric acid in chloride and nitrate systems. J Inorg Nucl Chem. 33(1):265. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1902(71)80028-3

  16. Mohammadi M, Forsberg K, Kloo L, De La Cruz JM, Rasmuson A (2015) Separation of Nd(III), DY(III) and Y(III) by solvent extraction using D2EHPA and EHEHPA. Hydrometallurgy 156:215–224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hydromet.2015.05.004

  17. Pirom T, Arponwichanop A, Ura Pancharoen U, Yonezawa T, Kheawhom S (2018) Yttrium (III) recovery with D2EHPA in pseudo-emulsion hollow fiber strip dispersion system. SCI Rep 8:7627. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-25771-4

  18. Radhika S, Kumar BN, Kantam ML, Reddy BR (2011) Solvent extraction and separation of rare-earths from phosphoric acid solutions with TOPS 99. Hydrometallurgy 110(1–4):50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hydromet.2011.08.004

  19. Rydberg J, Musikas C, Choppin GR (1992) Principles and practices of solvent extraction. Marcel Dekker Inc, New York

  20. Smets BMJ (1987) Phosphors based on rare-earths, a new era in fluorescent lighting. Mater Chem Phys 16:283–299. https://doi.org/10.1016/0254-0584(87)90103-9

  21. Sun XB (2005) The thermodynamic and kinetic study on the synergistic extraction of rare earth. Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun

  22. Sun XB, Zhao JM, Meng SL, Li DQ (2005) Synergistic extraction and separation of yttrium from heavy rare earths using mixture of sec-octylphenoxy acetic acid and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid. Anal Chim Acta 533:83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2004.11.005

  23. Sun XB, Wang YG, Li DQ (2006) Selective separation of yttrium by CA-100 in the presence of a complexing agent. J Alloys Compd 408(3):999. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2004.12.137

  24. Thakur NV (2000) Separation of dysprosium and yttrium from yttrium concentrate using alkylphosphoric acid (DEHPA) alkylphosphonic acid (EHEHPA–PC 88A) as extractants. Solvent Extr Ion Exch 18(5):853. https://doi.org/10.1080/07366290008934711

  25. Van’t Hoff JH (1995) The role of osmotic pressure in the analogy between solutions and gases. J Membr Sci 100:39–44

  26. Wang YG, Xiong Y, Meng SL, Li DQ (2004) Separation of yttrium from heavy lanthanide by CA-100 using the complexing agent. Talanta 63(2):239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2003.09.034

  27. Wu DB, Li W, Li DQ, Xiong Y (2007) The extraction and separation of Ho, Y, and Er(III) with the mixtures of Cyanex 302 and another organic extractant. Sep Sci Technol 42(4):847. https://doi.org/10.1080/01496390601120698

  28. Xie F, Zhang TA, Dreisinger D, Doyle F (2014) A critical review on solvent extraction of rare earths from aqueous solutions. J Miner Eng 56:10–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mineng.2013.10.021

  29. Yang Y, Walton A, Sheridan R, Güth K, Gauß R, Gutfleisch O, Buchert M, Steenari BM, Gerven TV, Jones PT, Binnemans K (2017) REE recovery from end-of-life NdFeB permanent magnet scrap: a critical review. J Sustain Metall 3(1):122–149

  30. Yin S, Wu W, Bian X, Luo Y, Zhang F (2013) Solvent extraction of La(III) from chloride medium in the presence of two water soluble complexing agents with di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid. Ind Eng Chem Res 52(25):8558–8564. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie400403w

  31. Yin S, Li S, Wu W, Bian X, Peng J, Zhang L (2014) Extraction and separation of Ce(III) and Pr(III) in the system containing two complexing agents with di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid. RSC Adv 4:59997–60001. https://doi.org/10.1039/C4RA10143J

  32. Yoshizuka K, Sakamoto Y, Babay, Inoue K (1990) Extraction Kinetics of Holmium(III) and yttrium(III) with D2EHPA in membrane extractor using a hollow fiber. In: 12th international solvent extraction conference (ISEC’90), p 805

Download references


This research is funded by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority and did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Author information

Correspondence to E. M. Abu Elgoud.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Abu Elgoud, E.M., Ismail, Z.H., El-Nadi, Y.A. et al. Separation of cerium(IV) and yttrium(III) from citrate medium by solvent extraction using D2EHPA in kerosene. Chem. Pap. (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11696-020-01083-8

Download citation


  • Extraction
  • REEs
  • Citric acid
  • D2EHPA
  • Separation