Hierarchical porous carbon/selenium composite derived from hydrothermal treated peanut shell as high-performance lithium ion battery cathode

  • Chen-Hao ZhaoEmail author
  • Bo-Jun Peng
  • Zhi-Biao Hu
Original Paper


Peanut shell-derived porous carbon has been prepared by the KOH-assisted hydrothermal treatment and subsequent carbonization route. The influences of KOH concentrations on structure of resulting carbon are clearly studied. At a KOH concentration of 5 M, the obtained porous carbon, possessing inner micropores and surface macropores, has a specific surface area of 827.7 m2/g and moderate porous size. The amorphous Se is uniformly encapsulated into its microporous structure to form hierarchical porous carbon/selenium composite. As the cathode material of Li ion battery, this composite delivers an initial discharge capacity of 590.6 mA h/g with Coulombic efficiency of 71.6% at 0.2 C, and a high capacity retention ratio of 83.3% can be reached after 500 cycles at 2 C. Even at a high rate of 4 C, this composite still presents a discharge capacity of 405.8 mA h/g. By comparison, these improved electrochemical performances may be attributed to the hierarchical porous feature, moderate porous size and effective encapsulation of selenium.


Hydrothermal assisted KOH solution Hierarchical porous carbon Carbon/Se composite Li–Se battery 



The authors thank the financial supports from the Scientific Start Foundation of LongYan University (LB2014001), and from Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province (2018J01502).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11696_2019_985_MOESM1_ESM.docx (226 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 226 kb)


  1. Abouimrane A, Dambournet D, Chapman KW, Chupap PJ, Wang W, Amine K (2012) A new class of lithium and sodium rechargeable batteries based on selenium and selenium–sulfur as a positive electrode. J Am Chem Soc 134:4505–4508. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Chen L, Shaw LL (2014) Recent advances in lithium–sulfur batteries. J Power Source 267:770–784. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cui YJ, Abouimrane A, Sun CJ, Ren Y, Amine K (2014) Li–Se battery: absence of lithium polyselenides in carbonate based electrolyte. Chem Commun 50:5576–5579. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Deng J, Li MM, Wang Y (2016) Biomass-derived carbon: synthesis and applications in energy storage and conversion. Green Chem 18:4824–4854. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Eftekhari A (2017) The rise of lithium–selenium batteries. Sustain Energy Fuels 1:14–19. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ellis BL, Lee KT, Nazar LF (2010) Positive electrode materials for Li-ion and Li-batteries. Chem Mater 22:691–714. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Guo LZ, He HY, Ren YR, Wang C, Li MQ (2018) Core-shell SiO@F-doped C composites with interspaces and voids as anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. Chem Eng J 335:32–40. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hao EC, Liu W, Liu S, Zhang Y, Zhao SP, Yang HZ (2017) Rich sulfur doped porous carbon materials derived from ginkgo leaves for multiple electrochemical energy storage devices. J Mater Chem A 5:2204–2214. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. He D, Huang X, Li MQ (2019) Hierarchical CeP(=O)(–O–)n (n ≤ 2)-linked nano-Si/N-doped C/graphene porous foam as anodes for high-performance lithium ion batteries. Carbon 141:531–541. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hong YJ, Kang YC (2017) Selenium-impregnated hollow carbon microspheres as efficient cathode materials for lithium–selenium batteries. Carbon 111:198–206. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jiang Y, Ma XJ, Feng JK, Xiong SL (2015) Selenium in nitrogen-doped microporous carbon spheres for high-performance lithium–selenium batteries. J Mater Chem A 3:4539–4546. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jin J, Tian XC, Srikanth N, Kong LB, Zhou K (2017) Advances and challenges of nanostructured electrodes for Li–Se batteries. J Mater Chem A 5:10110–10126. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lee YK, Mahadik DB, Kim T, Han W, Cho HH, Park HH (2018) Effect of differentiated textural properties of tin oxide aerogels on anode performance in lithium-ion batteries. J Alloys Compd 732:511–517. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Li ZQ, Yin LW (2015) MOF-derived, N-doped, hierarchically porous carbon sponges as immobilizers to confine selenium as cathodes for Li–Se batteries with superior storage capacity and perfect cycling stability. Nanoscale 7:9597–9606. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Li WF, Liu MN, Wang J, Zhang YG (2017) Progress of lithium/sulfur batteries based on chemically modified carbon. Acta Phys Chim Sin 33:165–182. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lin J, Zeng CH, Lin XM, Reddy R, Niu JL, Liu JC, Cai YP (2019) Trimetallic MOF-derived Cu0.39Zn0.14Co2.47O4–CuO interwoven with carbon nanotubes on copper foam for superior lithium storage with boosted kinetics. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 7:15684–15695. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Liu LL, Hou YY, Wu XW, Xiong SY, Wu WP (2013) Nanoporous selenium as a cathode material for rechargeable lithium–selenium batteries. Chem Commun 49:11515–11517. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Liu T, Zhang Y, Hou JK, Lu SY, Jiang Y, Xu MW (2015) High performance mesoporous C@Se composite cathodes derived from Ni-based MOFs for Li–Se batteries. RSC Adv 5:84038–84043. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Liu T, Jia M, Zhang Y, Han J, Xu MW (2017) Confined selenium within metal-organic frameworks derived porous carbon microcubes as cathode for rechargeable lithium–selenium batteries. J Power Source 341:53–59. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mahadik DB, Lee YK, Kim T, Han W, Park HH (2018) Structural and electrochemical properties of SnO2-carbon composite aerogels for Li-ion battery anode material. Solid State Ionics 327:76–82. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Manthiram A, Fu YZ, Su YS (2013) Challenges and prospects of lithium–sulfur batteries. Acc Chem Res 46:1125–1134. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Niu JL, Hao GX, Lin J, Lin XM, Cai YP (2017) Mesoporous MnO/C–N nanostructures derived from a metal–organic framework as high-performance anode for lithium-ion battery. Inorg Chem 56:9966–9972. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Niu JL, Peng HJ, Zeng CH, Lin XM, Cai YP, Xu AW (2018) An efficient multidoped Cu0.39Zn0.14Co2.47O4–ZnO electrode attached on reduced graphene oxide and copper foam as superior lithium-ion battery anodes. Chem Eng J 336:510–517. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pan YZ, Yin L, Li MQ (2019) Submicron-sized α-Fe2O3 single crystals as anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. Ceram Int 45:12072–12079. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Peng HJ, Hao GX, Chu ZH, Cui YL, Lin XM, Cai YP (2017) From metal–organic framework to porous carbon polyhedron: toward highly reversible lithium storage. Inorg Chem 56:10007–10012. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Prahas D, Kartika Y, Indraswati N, Ismadji S (2008) Activated carbon from jackfruit peel waste by H3PO4 chemical activation: pore structure and surface chemistry characterization. Chem Eng J 140:32–42. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Qu YH, Zhang ZA, Jiang SF, Wang XW (2014) Confining selenium in nitrogen-containing hierarchical porous carbon for high-rate rechargeable lithium–selenium batteries. J Mater Chem A 2:12255–12261. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rehman S, Khan K, Zhao YF, Hou YL (2017) Nanostructured cathode materials for lithium–sulfur batteries: progress, challenges and perspectives. J Mater Chem A 5:3014–3038. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Shi F, He CX, Zhu BH, Liu DN (2017) A comparative study on the components and physicochemical properties of four kinds of plant husk fibers (In Chinese). J Nanjing Agric Univ 40:359–365. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sun KL, Zhao HB, Zhang SQ, Yao J, Xu JQ (2015) Selenium/pomelo peel-derived carbon nanocomposite as advanced cathode for lithium–selenium batteries. Ionics 21:2477–2484. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wang JC, Kaskel S (2012) KOH activation of carbon-based materials for energy storage. J Mater Chem 22:23710–23725. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wang XW, Zhang ZA, Qu YH, Li J (2015) Solution-based synthesis of multi-walled carbon nanotube/selenium composites for high performance lithium–selenium battery. J Power Source 287:247–252. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wang J, Nie P, Deng B, Dong SY, Zhang XG (2017) Biomass derived carbon for energy storage device. J Mater Chem A 5:2411–2428. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wang MY, Yin L, Li MQ, Luo SH, Wang C (2019) Low-cost heterogeneous dual-carbon shells coated silicon monoxide porous composites as anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. J Colloid Interfaces Sci 549:225–235. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wu FX, Yushin G (2017) Conversion cathodes for rechargeable lithium and lithium-ion batteries. Energy Environ Sci 10:435–459. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Xu GY, Ding B, Shen LF, Zhang XG (2013) Sulfur embedded in metal organic framework-derived hierarchically porous carbon nanoplates for high performance lithium–sulfur battery. J Mater Chem A 1:4490–4496. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Xu JT, Ma JM, Fan QH, Guo SJ, Dou SX (2017) Recent progress in the design of advanced cathode materials and battery models for high-performance lithium-X (X=O2, S, Se, Te, I2, Br 2) Batteries. Adv Mater 29:1606454. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yang CP, Yin YX, Guo YG (2015) Elemental selenium for electrochemical energy storage. J Phys Chem Lett 6:256–266. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Ye H, Ye YX, Zhang SF, Guo YG (2014) Advanced Se–C nanocomposites: a bifunctional electrode material for both Li–Se and Li-ion batteries. J Mater Chem A 2:13293–13298. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yi ZQ, Yuan LX, Sun D, Shan B, Huang YH (2015) High-performance lithium–selenium batteries promoted by heteroatom-doped microporous carbon. J Mater Chem A 3:3059–3065. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Yu FQ, Li YL, Jia M, Zhang H, Shen Q (2017) Elaborate construction and electrochemical properties of lignin-derived macro-/micro-porous carbon-sulfur composites for rechargeable lithium–sulfur batteries: the effect of sulfur-loading time. J Alloys Compd 706:677–685. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zeng LC, Zeng WC, Jiang Y, Wei X, Zhu YW, Yu Y (2015) A flexible porous carbon nanofibers-selenium cathode with superior electrochemical performance for both Li–Se and Na–Se batteries. Adv Energy Mater 5:1401377. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zhang JJ, Fan L, Zhu YC, Qian YT (2014) Selenium/interconnected porous hollow carbon bubbles composites as the cathodes of Li–Se batteries with high performance. Nanoscale 6:12952–12957. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Zhang H, Yu FQ, Kang WP, Shen Q (2015) Encapsulating selenium into macro-/micro-porous biochar-based framework for high-performance lithium–selenium batteries. Carbon 95:354–363. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zhang C, Liu MY, Chen WQ, Zeng LX, Wei MD (2016) An in situ formed Se/CMK-3 composite for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries with long-term cycling performance. J Mater Chem A 4:13646–13651. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zhao CH, Xu LB, Hu ZB, Qiu SE, Liu KY (2016) Facile synthesis of selenium/potassium tartrate derived porous carbon composite as an advanced Li–Se battery cathode. RSC Adv 6:47486–47490. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zhou XY, Chen F, Bai T, Jiang J (2016) Interconnected highly graphitic carbon nanosheets derived from wheat stalk as high performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries. Green Chem 18:2078–2088. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Chemistry and Materials ScienceLongYan UniversityLongYanChina
  2. 2.Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Clean Energy MaterialsLongYan UniversityLongYanChina

Personalised recommendations