Nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide as a sensing platform for detection of guanine and application in cell necrosis

  • Guangjie Song
  • Rongjin Zhang
  • Xuechan Jiang
  • Fuxin Liu
  • Xiuhui LiuEmail author
Original Paper


In this paper, a novel electrochemical sensor was fabricated based on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO). The morphology, structure and electrochemical properties of N-RGO were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). AFM indicated the thickness of N-RGO is about 1.0 nm. The electrochemical experiments demonstrated that N-RGO possesses a relatively large surface area, strong adsorptive ability and excellent electrical conductivity. It was believed that N-RGO is a promising candidate for applications in electrochemical sensors and biosensors. Moreover, N-RGO modified glassy carbon electrode (N-RGO/GCE) exhibited good electrochemical response toward the oxidation of guanine with a linear range covering 4.14 × 10−7–3.71 × 10−4 M, and the corresponding detection limit (LOD) of 1.38 × 10−7 M. Eventually, the proposed sensor could be used to monitor cell necrosis by means of detecting the increase of the current response of guanine. Thus, the work is very meaningful in the field of biological cytology and pathology.

Graphic abstract

A sensitive sensor for guanine detection is constructed based on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO), which was synthesized by a facile method. This paper is the first time to monitor cell necrosis by detecting the increase of guanine content.


Nitrogen Doped reduced graphene oxide Cell contents Guanine Cell necrosis Cyclic voltammetry 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21565021).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing financial interest.

Supplementary material

11696_2019_856_MOESM1_ESM.docx (3 mb)
The calculation of the electrochemical effective surface area and the saturating absorption capacity of bare electrode and N-RGO modified electrode, the optimization of experimental variables, the study of reproducibility, interference immunity and stability of the modified electrode, the control experiment of monitoring cell necrosis and the comparison of various sensors. (DOCX 3056 kb)


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Copyright information

© Institute of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry and Environmental Analysis of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringNorthwest Normal UniversityLanzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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