Selective removal of lead (II) ions and estimation of Ca (II) ions using poly-o-toluidine–zirconium (IV) molybdophosphate

  • Rupinder Kaur
  • Sandeep KaushalEmail author
  • Prit Pal SinghEmail author
Original Paper


A new composite cation exchange material poly-o-toluidine–zirconium (IV) molybdophosphate (PTD–ZrMoP) was synthesized by sol–gel method through the incorporation of inorganic gel of zirconium(IV) molybdophosphate in the organic polymer poly-o-toluidine. The PTD–ZrMoP was characterized by FTIR, FESEM, HRTEM, XRD and TGA/DTA techniques. Elution behavior, thermal stability, pH titrations, chemical stability, distribution studies and quantitative separation of metal ions in binary synthetic mixtures and real life samples on nanocomposite ion exchanger were also investigated. The ion-exchange capacity of the nanocomposite ion exchanger (0.84 meq/g) has been observed to be higher compared to that of its inorganic counterpart (0.49 meq/g). The nanocomposite was found to be thermally stable and retained 71.43% of its ion-exchange capacity up to 300 °C temperature. The environmental applicability of the PTD–ZrMoP nanocomposite was explored by achieving binary separations and selective separation of Pb2+ from synthetic mixtures of metal ions. The analytical utility of nanocomposite ion exchanger has been established by the separation of harmful Pb2+ ions from waste water samples obtained from paint industry, textile industry and lead storage battery unit, and by the quantitative estimation of Ca2+ ions in a commercially available pharmaceutical formula.


Organic–inorganic composite material Poly-o-toluidine–Zr (IV) molybdophosphate Nanocomposite Separation of metal ions 



The authors gratefully acknowledge Sri Guru Granth Sahib World University, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab (India) and Guru Nanak Dev Polytechnic College, Ludhiana (India) for providing the necessary facilities.


  1. Akhtar A, Khan MDA, Nabi SA (2015) Synthesis, characterization and photolytic degradation activity of poly-o-toluidine–thorium(IV)molybdophosphate cation exchanger: analytical application in metal ion treatment. Desalination 361:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alothman AZ, Naushad M, Inamudin I (2011) Organic-inorganic type composite cation exchanger poly-o-toluidine Zr(IV) tungstate: preparation, physicochemical characterization and its analytical application in separation of heavy metals. Chem Eng J 172(1):369–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Duval C (1963) Inorganic Thermogravimetric Analysis. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 315Google Scholar
  4. Flora G, Gupta D, Tiwari A (2012) Toxicity of lead: a review with recent updates. Interdiscip Toxicol 5:47–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gupta V, Pathania D, Singh P (2014) Pectin–cerium (IV) tungstate nanocomposite and its adsorptional activity for removal of methylene blue dye. Int J Environ Sci Technol 11:2015–2024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Innamuddin SA, Khan WA, Siddiqui AA, Khan AA (2007) Synthesis, characterization and ion-exchange properties of a new and novel ‘organic–inorganic’ hybrid cation-exchanger: Nylon-6,6, Zr(IV) phosphate. Talanta 71:841–847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Jain PC, Jain M (2007) Engineering Chemistry. Danpat Rai Publishing Company (P) LTD, New Delhi, pp 209–210Google Scholar
  8. Kalia K, Flora SJ (2005) Strategies for safe and effective therapeutic measures for chronic arsenic and lead poisoning. J Occup Health 47(1):1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kaushal S, Singh P, Mittal SK (2014) Yttrium (III) selective electrode based on zirconium (IV) phosphoborate. J New Mat Electr Syst 17:5–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kaushal S, Badru R, Kumar S, Mittal S, Singh P (2016) Fabrication of a mercury(II) ion selective electrode based on poly-o-toluidine–zirconium phosphoborate. RSC Adv 6:3150–3158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Khan AA, Akhtar T (2011) Synthesis, characterization and analytical application of nano-composite cation-exchange material, poly-o-toluidine Ce (IV) phosphate: its application in making Cd(II) ion selective membrane electrode. J Solid State Sci 13:559–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Khan AA, Sheen S (2013) Ion-exchange studies of ‘organic–inorganic’ nano-composite cation-exchanger: poly-o-anisidine Sn(IV) tungstate and its analytical application for the separations of toxic metals. Compos Part B 44:692–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Khan AA, Sheen S (2014) Chronopotentiometric and electroanalytical studies of Ni (II) selective polyaniline Zr (IV) molybdophosphate ion exchange membrane electrode. J Electroanal Chem 714–715:38–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kumar D (2001) Poly(o-toluidine) polymer as electrochromic material. Eur Polym J 37:1721–1725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lehto J, Harjula R (1999) Selective separation of radionuclides from nuclear waste solutions with inorganic ion exchangers. Radiochim Acta 86:65–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Loomism D, Grosse Y, Lauby-Secretan B, Ghissassi F, Bouvard V, Benbrahim-Tallaa L, Guha N, Baan R, Mattock H, Straif K (2013) The carcinogenicity of outdoor air pollution. Lancet Oncol 14:1262–1263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Malik WU, Shrivastava SK (1983) Application of zirconium molybdophosphate gel for the selective separation of thallium (I) ions. Analyst 108:340–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Matlock MM, Howerton BS, Atwood DA (2002) Chemical precipitation of lead from lead battery recycling plant wastewater. Ind Eng Chem Res 41:1579–1582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mavrov V, Erwe T, Blocher C, Chmiel H (2003) Study of new integrated processes, combining adsorption, membrane separation and flotation for heavy metal removal from wastewater. Desalination 157:97–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nabi SA, Bushra R (2010) Synthesis, characterization and analytical applications of a new composite cation exchange material poly-o-toluidine stanic molybdate for the separation of toxic metal ions. J Chem Eng 165:529–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nabi SA, Nausad M (2008) Synthesis, characterization and analytical applications of a new composite cation exchanger cellulose acetate-Zr(IV) molybdophosphate. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 316:217–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nachod FC, Wood W (1944) The reaction velocity of ion exchange. J Am Chem Soc 66:1380–1384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Naushad M, Al-Othman Islam M (2013) Adsorption of cadmium ion using a new composite cation exchanger polyaniline Sn(IV) silicate: kinetics, thermodynamic and isotherm studies. Int J Environ Sci Technol 10:567–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Naushad M, Inamuddin Rangreez SK, Alothman ZA (2014) A mercury ion selective electrode based on poly-o-toluidine Zr (IV) tungstate composite membrane. J Electroanal Chem 713:125–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pathania D, Sharma G, Thakur R (2015) Pectin @ zirconium (IV) silicophosphate nanocomposite ion exchanger: photo catalysis, heavy metal separation and antibacterial activity. Chem Eng J 267:235–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sakthi V, Rengaraj S (2004) Kinetics and equilibrium adsorption study of leadII) onto activated carbon prepared from coconut shell. J Colloid Interface Sci 279:307–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sharma G, Patahnia D, Naushad Mu (2014) Preparation, characterization and antimicrobial activity of biopolymer based nanocomposite ion exchanger pectin zirconium(IV) selenotungstophosphate: application for removal of toxic metals. J Ind Eng Chem 20:4482–4490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Topp NE, Pepper KW (1949) J Chem Soc 3299–3303.
  29. Zhang Q, Pan B, Zhang W, Pan B, Lv Lu, Wang X, Wu J, Tao X (2009) Selective removal of Pb(II), Cd(II), and Zn(II) ions from waters by an inorganic exchanger Zr(HPO3S)2. J Hazard Mater 170:824–830CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Guru Nanak Dev Polytechnic CollegeLudhianaIndia
  2. 2.Department of ChemistrySri Guru Granth Sahib World UniversityFatehgarh SahibIndia

Personalised recommendations