Engine performance and emission of biodiesel fuel prepared from different Ukrainian natural oils

  • Lyubov K. PatrylakEmail author
  • Mykhailo V. Okhrimenko
  • Anton M. Levterov
  • Serhiy V. Konovalov
  • Angela V. Yakovenko
  • Stepan O. Zubenko
Original Paper


A range of natural oils such as rapeseed, sunflower, corn, linseed, and mustard ones has been used for fatty acid ethyl esters synthesis. The last as pure biodiesel B100 were mixed with fossil diesel B0 to form blends B20, B40, B60, and B80. This study reports the effects of engine load and biodiesel percentage on the performance and emission of a tractor diesel engine fueled with biodiesel–diesel blends. It is stated that mixed fuels little inferior to mineral diesel in engine performance, but the observed reduction is not critical. The results showed that the engine performance (effective power and torque) depends primarily on the content of acids with C18 carbon chain in the oil. It was also found that the highest performance among the blended fuels is introduced by ethyl esters of rapeseed oil, while corn and mustard oil ethyl esters presented the lowest emissions level. The emissions of rapeseed, sunflower, corn, linseed, and mustard ethyl esters are all lower than the base mineral fuel.


Biodiesel Natural oil Fatty acid composition Ethyl esters Engine performance Emission 

List of symbols and abbreviations


100% Biodiesel


20% Biodiesel + 80% mineral diesel


40% Biodiesel + 60% mineral diesel


60% Biodiesel + 40% mineral diesel


80% Biodiesel + 20% mineral diesel


Potassium form of zeolite A


Gas chromatograph


Specific fuel consumption (kg/


Carbon monoxide


Carbon dioxide


Nitrogen oxides


Particulate matter


Torque (N.m)


Engine effective power (kW)


Engine efficiency


Potassium hydroxide


Higher heating value (−1)


Lower heating value (−1)


Injection timing angle (°)



The authors wish to express their gratitude to R.V. Likhniovsky for assistance in calorimetric analysis of ethyl esters.


  1. Anisimov IG, Badyshtova KM, Bnatov SA (1999) Fuels and lubricants, technical liquids. The range and applications: directory. Techinform, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  2. Atabani AE, Silitonga AS, Badruddin IA, Mahlia TMI, Masjuki HH, Mekhilef S (2012) A comprehensive review on biodiesel as an alternative energy resource and its characteristics. Renew Sust Energy Rev 16:2070–2093. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brunschwig C, Moussavou W, Blin J (2012) Use of bioethanol for biodiesel production. Prog Energy Combust Sci 38:283–301. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Godwin AA, Dinesh S, Rajacuru K, Vijayan V, Aeavidan S (2017) Analysis and optimization of performance parameters in computerized IC engine using diesel blended with linseed oil and Leishmaan’s solution. Mech Mech Eng 21:193–205Google Scholar
  5. Gureev AA, Azev VS, Kamfer GM (1993) Fuel for diesel engines. Properties and application. Chemistry, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  6. Issariyakul T, Kulkarni MG, Dalai AK, Bakhshi NN (2007) Production of biodiesel from waste fryer grease using mixed methanol/ethanol system. Fuel Process Technol 88:429–436. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Jegannathan KR, Sariah A, Denis P, Seng CE, Pogaku R (2008) Production of biodiesel using immobilized lipase—a critical review. Crit Rev Biotechnol 28:253–264. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kiss AA, Dimian AC, Rothenberg G (2006) Solid acid catalysts for biodiesel production—towards sustainable energy. Adv Synth Catal 248:75–81. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Klausmeier WH (2009) Biodiesel and diesel composition. US Patent 20090260279.
  10. Knothe G, Krahl J, Van Gerpen JH (2010) The biodiesel handbook. AOCS Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Koh MY, Ghazi TIM (2011) A review of biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L. oil. Renew Sust Energy Rev 15:2240–2251. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kuznetsov AV, Kulchiy MA (1987) Workshop on fuel and lubricants. Agropromizdat, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  13. Li E, Xu ZP, Rudolph V (2009) MgCoAl–LDH derived heterogeneous catalysts for the ethanol transesterification of canola oil to biodiesel. Appl Catal B Environ 88:42–49. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Makareviciene V, Janulis P (2003) Environmental effect of rapeseed oil ethyl ester. Renew Energy 28:2395–2403. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Patrylak LK, Patrylak KI, Okhrimenko MV, Ivanenko VV, Zubenko SO, Levterov AM, Marakhovskyi VP, Savytskyi VD (2013) Ethanol containing ethyl esters of fatty acids as perspective environment like fuel. Fuel 113:650–653. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Patrylak LK, Patrylak KI, Okhrimenko MV, Zubenko SO, Levterov AM, Savytskyi VD (2015) Comparison of power-ecological characteristics of diesel engine work on mixed diesel fuels on the basis of ethyl esters of rapeseed and sunflower oils. Chem Chem Technol 9:383–390. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Volpato CES, do Prado CA, Salvador JA, Barbosa N (2012) Performance of cycle diesel engine using biodiesel of olive oil (B100). Ciênc Agrotec 36:348–353. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Yilmaz N (2012) Comparative analysis of biodiesel–ethanol–diesel and biodiesel–methanol–diesel blends in a diesel engine. Energy 40:210–213. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lyubov K. Patrylak
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mykhailo V. Okhrimenko
    • 1
  • Anton M. Levterov
    • 2
  • Serhiy V. Konovalov
    • 1
  • Angela V. Yakovenko
    • 1
  • Stepan O. Zubenko
    • 1
  1. 1.V.P. Kukhar Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry and PetrochemistryNational Academy of Sciences of UkraineKyivUkraine
  2. 2.A.M Podgorny Institute for Mechanical Engineering ProblemsNational Academy of Sciences of UkraineKharkivUkraine

Personalised recommendations