Direct growth of MWCNTs on stainless steel by V-type flame: mechanism of carbon nanotube growth induced by surface reconstruction
- 8 Downloads
Producing carbon nanomaterials adjustably on a large scale with existing manufacturing methods is a promising direction. Here, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were grown on stainless steel substrate using a self-built V-type flame burner under atmospheric pressure. The surface structure of mirror and wiredrawing stainless steel substrates was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Carbon nanotubes only grow on calcined wiredrawing stainless steel substrate. X-ray diffraction was used to investigate the crystallinity of MWCNTs synthesized on substrates that were heated at 400 °C, 600 °C, and 800 °C, indicating that the calcining temperature of the substrate affects the properties of MWCNTs growth. Products grown on the substrate calcined at 600 °C are optimal. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were employed to examine the morphology and chemical compositions of substrates calcined at different temperatures before growing carbon nanotubes. It was found that the morphology of the substrate surface is a key factor in controlling the growth of MWCNTs. Uniform particles with glossy boundaries are available for MWCNTs synthesis. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy was performed on single metallic particles found inside the nanotubes, clarifying that iron nanoparticles provide active sites for carbon nanotube growth on stainless steel instead of oxidation iron and other elements. A better understanding of the growth of carbon nanotubes on stainless steel using a V-type flame burner can help to adjust the properties of carbon nanotubes deposited on the required constructions, and provide additional insight into realization of large-scale and low-cost constructions covered with carbon nanotubes.
KeywordsMultiwall carbon nanotube V-type flame method Mirror stainless steel Wiredrawing stainless steel Calcining temperature
We gratefully acknowledge Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2018QN045).
- Cai F, Wang J, Yuan Z, Du X (2012) Growth of aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube arrays film on stainless steel substrates for electrode applications. J Optoelectron Adv Mater 14(3):267–271Google Scholar
- Camilli L, Scarselli M, Del Gobbo S, Castrucci P, Nanni F, Gautron E, Lefrant S, De Crescenzi M (2011) The synthesis and characterization of carbon nanotubes grown by chemical vapor deposition using a stainless steel catalyst. Carbon 49(10):3307–3315. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2011.04.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Guo YH, Sun BM, Ding ZY, Bi JS, Jia B (2011) Catalyst study for carbon nanotubes synthesis by flame. Adv Mater Res 213:562–565. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.213.562 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Guo YH, Jiang P, Wang Y, Ding KX, Sun BM (2014a) Effect of gas flow rate on the carbon nanotubes synthesized by flame pyrolysis method. J Synth Cryst 43(11):2830–2834, 2845. https://doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1000-985x.2014.11.012 Google Scholar
- Guo YH, Jia B, Sun BM, Ding ZY (2014b) Pyrolysis flame synthesis of single, double and triple-walled carbon nanotubes on Fe/Mo/Al2O3 catalysts: effects of synthesis temperature, sampling time and flow rate of CO. J Synth Cryst 40(4):947–952. https://doi.org/10.16553/j.cnki.issn1000-985x.2011.04.026 Google Scholar
- Lara-Romero J, Ocampo-Macias T, Martínez-Suarez R, Rangel-Segura R, LóPez-Tinoco J, Paraguay-Delgado F, Alonso-NuñEz G, JiméNez-Sandoval S, Chiñas-Castillo F (2017) Parametric study of the synthesis of carbon nanotubes by spray pyrolysis of a biorenewable feedstock: α-pinene. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 5(5):3890–3896. https://doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b03054 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lewis AT, Gaifulina R, Isabelle M, Dorney J, Woods ML, Lloyd GR, Lau K, Rodriguez-Justo M, Kendall C, Stone N, Thomas GM (2017) Mirrored stainless steel substrate provides improved signal for Raman spectroscopy of tissue and cells. J Raman Spectrosc 48(1):119–125. https://doi.org/10.1002/jrs.4980 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sano N, Hori Y, Yamamoto S, Tamon H (2012a) A simple oxidation–reduction process for the activation of a stainless steel surface to synthesize multi-walled carbon nanotubes and its application to phenol degradation in water. Carbon 50(1):115–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2011.07.059 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Vander Wal RL, Hall LJ (2002) Nanotube coated metals: new reinforcement materials for polymer matrix composites. Adv Mater 14(18):1304–1308. https://doi.org/10.1002/1521-4095(20020916)14:183.0.CO;2-B CrossRefGoogle Scholar