Electrocatalytic effect of nano-wrinkled layer carbonaceous electrode: determination of folic acid by differential pulse voltammetry

  • Aslı Erkal-Aytemur
  • İlknur Üstündağ
  • İshak Afşin Kariper
  • Mustafa Oğuzhan Çağlayan
  • Zafer ÜstündağEmail author
Original Paper


Nano-wrinkled layer carbonaceous electrode materials were prepared from pyrolytic carbonization of different proportions of mixtures coal tar pitch (CTP) and polystyrene (PS) composite. The PS content in carbonaceous materials was in between 10% and 70% PS. The electrodes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical methods such as cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). CTP-PS4 (50% PS content) electrode was more reductant than the other electrodes. Similarly, electrocatalytic activity of CTP-PS4 for folic acid (FA) was higher than the other electrodes. The electrode was used in the determination of FA by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Under optimal conditions, the anodic current of FA was linear in the concentration range from 0.25 to 40 µmol/L. The obtained linear range calibration plot of the concentration of FA vs. peak current resulted in two linear slope values. The first equation for FA was Ip(FA) = 0.2476 + 3.9005 [FA] (R2: 0.9970) with the linear range from 0.25 to 1.5 μmol/L (LOD: 0.011 μmol/L; S/N = 3). The second linear equation was Ip(FA) = 4.5377 + 1.2509 [FA] (R2: 0,9957) with the linear range from 3.0 to 40 μmol/L (LOD = 0.092 μmol/L; S/N = 3). The proposed method was applied for the determination of FA in human serum with recovery rate from 97.3 to 101.3%.


Coal tar pitch Differential pulse voltammetry Folic acid Carbonaceous material 



  1. Abuilaiwi FA, Laoui T, Al-Harthi M, Atieh MA (2010) Modification and functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) via FISCHER esterification. Arab J Sci Eng 35:37–48. Google Scholar
  2. Amidzic R, Brboric J, Cudina O, Vladimirov S (2005) RP-HPLC Determination of vitAMins B1, B3, B6, folic acid and B12 in multivitAMin tablets. J Serb Chem Soc 70:1229–1235. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anastasopoulos P, Mellos T, Spinou M, Tsiaka T, Timotheou-Potamia M (2007) Chemiluminometric and fluorimetric determination of folic acid. Anal Lett 40:2203–2216. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Araujo EG, Fernandes NS, Solon LGS, Aragao CFS, Huitle CAM (2015) Voltammetric determination of folic acid using a graphite paste electrode. Electroanalysis 27:398–405. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arvand M, Pourhabib A, Giahi M (2017) Square wave voltammetric quantification of folic acid, uric acid and ascorbic acid in biological matrix. J Pharm Anal 7:110–117. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aurora-Prado MS, Silva CA, Tavares MF, Altria KD (2004) Determination of folic acid in tablets by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography. J Chromatogr A 1051:291–296. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bandžuchová L, Selešovská R (2011) Voltammetric determination of folic acid using liquid mercury free silver amalgam electrode. Acta Chim Slov 58:776–784Google Scholar
  8. Beitollahi H, Ivari SG, Torkzadeh-Mahani M (2016) Voltammetric determination of 6-thioguanine and folic acid using a carbon paste electrode modified with ZnO–CuO nanoplates and modifier. Mater Sci Eng C 69:128–133. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chaudhary A, Wang J, Prabhu S (2010) Development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of aspirin and folic acid from nano-particulate systems. Biomed Chromatogr 24:825–919. Google Scholar
  10. D’Souza OJ, Mascarenhas RJ, Satpati AK, Detriche S, Mekhalif Z, Delhalle J, Dhason A (2017) High electrocatalytic oxidation of folic acid at carbon pasteelectrode bulk modified with iron nanoparticle-decorated multiwalled carbon nanotubes and its application in food and pharmaceutical analysis. Ionics 23:201–212. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Erkal A, Aşık İ, Yavuz S, Kariper A, Üstündağ Z (2016) Biosensor application of carbonaceous nanocoil material: preparation, characterization, and determination of dopamine and uric acid in the presence of ascorbic acid. J Electrochem Soc 163:H269–H277. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hannisdal R, Ueland PM, Svardal A (2009) Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry analysis of folate and folate catabolites in human serum. Clin Chem 55:1147–1154. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hoegger D, Morier P, Vollet C, Heini D, Reymond F, Rossier JS (2007) Disposable microfluidic ELISA for the rapid determination of folic acid content in food products. Anal Bioanal Chem 387:267–275. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lavanya N, Fazio E, Neri F, Bonavita A, Leonardi SG, Neri G, Sekar C (2016) Electrochemical sensor for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, uric acid and folic acid based on Mn–SnO2 nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode. J Electroanal Chem 770:23–32. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lebiedzińska A, Dabrowska M, Szefer P (2008) High-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of folic acid in fortified food products. Toxicol Mech Methods 18:463–467. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Majidi MR, Dastangoo H, Hasannejad M, Malakouti J (2011) Voltammetric determination of folic acid with a overoxidized polypyrrole film modified sol–gel carbon ceramic electrode. Int J Polym Anal Charact 16:486–495. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Manoj D, Kumar DR, Santhanalakshmi J (2012) Impact of CuO nanoleaves on MWCNTs/GCE nanocomposite film modified electrode for the electrochemical oxidation of folic acid. Appl Nanosci 2:223–230. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mazloum-Ardakani M, Beitollahi H, Amini MK, Mirkhalaf F, Abdollahi-Alibeik M (2010) New strategy for simultaneous and selective voltammetric determination of norepinephrine, acetaminophen and folic acid using ZrO2 nanoparticles-modified carbon paste electrode. Sens Actuators B Chem 151:243–249. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Medical News (1989) Extra folate for men may reduce birth defects. In: Primary care, diet and nutrition from med page todayGoogle Scholar
  20. Milunsky A, Jick H, Jick SS, Bruell CL, MacLaughlin DS, Rothman KJ, Willett W (1989) Multivitamin/folic acid supplementation in early pregnancy reduces the prevalence of neural tube defects. J Am Med Assoc 262:2847–2852. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mir IA, Rawat K, Solanki PR, Bohidar HB (2017) ZnSe core and ZnSe@ZnS core–shell quantum dots as platform for folic acid sensing. J Nanopart Res 19:260–270. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mulinare J, Cordero JF, Erickson JD, Berry RJ (1988) Periconceptional use of multivitamins and the occurrence of neural tube defects. J Am Med Assoc 260:3141–3145. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nagaraja P, Vasantha RA, Yathirajan HS (2002) Spectrophotometric determination of folic acid in pharmaceutical preparations by coupling reactions with iminodibenzyl or 3-aminophenol or sodium molybdate–pyrocatechol. Anal Biochem 307:316–321. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Patring JD, Jastrebova JA (2007) Application of liquid chromatography–electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry for determination of dietary folates: effects of buffer nature and mobile phase composition on sensitivity and selectivity. J Chromatogr A 1143:72–82. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rajabi H, Noroozifar M (2017) New synthesis of poly ortho-methoxyaniline nanostructures and its application to construct modified multi-wall carbon nanotube/graphite paste electrode for simultaneous determination of uric acid and folic acid. Mater Sci Eng C 75:791–797. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sangamithirai D, Munusamy S, Narayanan V, Stephen A (2018) Mater Sci Eng C 91:512–523. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Tehrani MS, Azar PA, Namin PE, Dehaghi SM (2013) Removal of lead ions from wastewater using functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes with tris(2-aminoethyl)amine. J Environ Protect 4:529–536. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Üstündağ İ, Erkal A (2017) Determination of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid on digitonin-doped coal tar pitch carbonaceous electrode. Sens Mater 29:85–94. Google Scholar
  29. Uysal UD, Kaya EM, Tuncel M (2010) Determination of folic acid by capillary electrophoresis in various cultivated variety of lentils. Chromatographia 71:653–658. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wang X, You Z, Cheng Y, Sha H, Li G, Zhu H, Sun W (2015) Application of nanosized gold and graphene modified carbon ionic liquid electrode for the sensitive electrochemical determination of folic acid. J Mol Liq 204:112–117. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wei S, Zhao F, Xu Z, Zeng B (2006) Voltammetric determination of folic acid with a multi-walled carbon nanotube-modified gold electrode. Microchim Acta 152:285–290. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Xu H, Bai Z, Wang G, O’Halloran KP, Tan L, Pang H, Ma H (2017) Voltammetric determination of folic acid at physiological pHvalues by using a glassy carbon electrode modifiedwith a multilayer composite consistingof polyoxometalate (H8P2Mo16V2O62) and reduced grapheneoxide and prepared via layer-by-layer self-assembly and in-situphotoreduction. Microchim Acta 184:4295–4303. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Yu F, Cui M, Chen F, Gao Y, Wei J, Ding Y (2009) Highly sensitive spectrofluorimetric determination of trace amounts of folic acid using a oxytetracycline-terbium(III) probe. Anal Lett 42:178–189. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zhang BT, Zhao L, Lin JM (2008) Determination of folic acid by chemiluminescence based on peroxomonosulfate-cobalt(II) system. Talanta 74:1154–1159. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zhang D, Ouyang X, Ma W, Li L, Zhang Y (2016) Voltammetric determination of folic acid using adsorption of methylene blue onto electrodeposited of reduced graphene oxide film modified glassy carbon electrode. Electroanalysis 28:312–319. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aslı Erkal-Aytemur
    • 1
  • İlknur Üstündağ
    • 2
  • İshak Afşin Kariper
    • 3
  • Mustafa Oğuzhan Çağlayan
    • 4
  • Zafer Üstündağ
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Rafet Kayış Engineering FacultyAlanya Alaaddin Keykubat UniversityAlanya, AntalyaTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and ScienceDumlupınar UniversityKütahyaTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of EducationErciyes UniversityKayseriTurkey
  4. 4.Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringBilecik Şeyh Edebali UniversityBilecikTurkey
  5. 5.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and ScienceDumlupınar UniversityKütahyaTurkey

Personalised recommendations