Chemical Papers

, Volume 73, Issue 5, pp 1027–1042 | Cite as

A review on mechanistic kinetic models of ethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production using a fixed bed reactor

  • Kumargaurao D. PunaseEmail author
  • Nihal Rao
  • P. Vijay


Hydrogen is considered as the main energy genesis of the future. Many applications have been considered for the use of hydrogen as an energy source, especially in the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Ethanol steam reforming (ESR) is considered to be the most viable technology, because ethanol can be produced from a bio-refinery which can be easily distributed and controlled. The kinetics of ESR have been studied based on different noble metals as well as non-noble metals using supporters in the form of metal oxides, mixed metal oxides, spinel, pervoskite, hydrotalcite, etc. The Eley–Rideal (ER) mechanism and the Langamuir–Hinshelwood–Hougen–Watson (LHHW) mechanism have been used to express the kinetics of ESR. Different catalysts will follow different types of kinetics depending on the reaction path and the kind of model preferred for the development of the kinetics. LHHW mechanism is preferred over the ER mechanism due to its accuracy and the highest activation energy associated with it. This study reviews the generalized mechanistic kinetics for the ESR using fixed bed reactor to produce hydrogen.


Kinetic rate Langamuir–Hinshelwood–Hougen–Watson mechanism Eley–Rideal mechanism Ethanol steam reforming Hydrogen 



Average absolute deviation




Ethanol steam reforming




Rate determining step


Water gas shift


\(\Delta H\)

Heat of adsorption


Concentration of reaction species


Concentration of active sites


Activation energy


Molar flow rate


Kinetic rate constant


Adsorption constant for species or Equilibrium constant of reaction


Partial pressure of reaction species


Universal gas constant


Rate of reaction




Weight of the catalyst





The authors would like to thank Prof. Santosh Kumar Gupta of our department for his inspiring guidance.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Institute of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical Engineering, School of EngineeringUniversity of Petroleum & Energy Studies (UPES)DehradunIndia

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