Micronutrient Deficiencies After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass: Long-Term Results

  • Pablo M. AriasEmail author
  • Emiliano A. Domeniconi
  • Manuel García
  • Carlos M. Esquivel
  • Fernando Martínez Lascano
  • José M. Foscarini
Original Contributions



Patients undergoing laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) are under risk of micronutrient deficiencies. We aimed to assess the preoperative and postoperative micronutrient deficiencies in a sample of patients with obesity who underwent LRYGB.


We evaluated 169 patients—satisfying the National Institute of Health criteria for bariatric surgery—who underwent a LRYGB from January 2014 to July 2017. Before surgery, we recorded a detailed medical history for every patient, and after surgery, we instructed them to return at 1, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 months after surgery.


Preoperatively, anemia was present in 4.24% of patients, iron deficiency in 5.33%, vitamin B12 deficiency in 12.3%, and vitamin D deficiency in 74.35%. Postoperatively, the deficiency rates of calcium, magnesium, folate, and vitamins A, B1, and B6 were markedly low at 1, 2, and 3 years after surgery. In regard to anemia, iron, and vitamin B12, rates of deficiency were higher at 2 and 3 years postoperatively versus preoperatively, but only anemia (4% vs 14% and 4% vs 27%, at 2 and 3 years) and iron (5% vs 23% at 3 years) reached statistical significance. Compared with the preoperative assessment, the rates of vitamin D deficiency decreased over time (74% vs 50% at 1 year [p < 0.001], 74% vs 45% at 2 years [p < 0.002] and 74% vs 41% at 3 years [p < 0.04]).


Vitamin D deficiency remains the most common preoperative deficiency. Anemia and deficiencies of iron and vitamin B12 are common before and after surgery. Deficiencies of calcium, magnesium, folate, and vitamins A, B1, and B6 are markedly low in the postoperative period.


Bariatric surgery Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass Micronutrient deficiency Anemia 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

For this type of study, formal consent is not required.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bariatric Surgery DepartmentSanatorio AllendeCórdobaArgentina

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