Gastric bypass procedures can potentially lead to middle and long-term complications (Podnos et al. Arch Surg 138(9):957–61, 2003). For several years, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass reversal procedures performed by laparotomy or laparoscopic way have been described in literature (Moon et al. Surg Obes Relat Dis 11(4):821–6, 2015). Major complications are anastomotic ulcers, anastomotic complications or functional disorder such as dumping syndrome, hypocalcemia, severe hypoglycemia, and malnutrition (Moon et al. Surg Obes Relat Dis 11(4):821–6, 2015; Campos et al. Surg Obes Relat Dis 10(1):36–43, 2014). One-anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) also called omega-loop gastric bypass (OLGB) or mini-gastric bypass (MGB) is a technique that has demonstrated similar results to traditional Roux-en-Y procedures in terms of weight loss and postoperative quality of life (Lee et al. Ann Surg 242(1):20–8, 2005). However, in a recent description of 1000 patients, the percentage of malnutrition was 0.2 % (two patients) with an indication to revert omega-loop gastric bypass back into normal anatomy (Chevallier et al. Obes Surg 25(6):951–8, 2015), but technical details have not been exposed yet.
The first robotic gastric bypass was published by Horgan and Vanuno in 2001 (Horgan and Vanuno J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 11(6):415–9, 2001). The present work describes for the first time a robotic procedure to reverse OLGB into normal anatomy.
We present the video report of a 69-year-old woman suffering of severe malnutrition (weight of 42 kg, body mass index of 15.8 kg/m2, albumin 21 g/l) who had undergone laparoscopic omega-loop gastric bypass 2 years ago (initial weight of 104 kg and initial body mass index of 39.6 kg/m2). She was referred to our Bariatric Surgery Unit, and after a period of parenteral nutrition support to improve nutritional status (albumin 32 g/l), we decided in a multidisciplinary staff to perform a reversal omega-loop gastric bypass back into normal anatomy using the DaVinci Si™ system by Intuitive Surgical Inc ®, Sunnyvale, CA.
In this high definition video, we present step-by-step robotic reversal of the omega-loop gastric bypass. The procedure began with a careful adhesiolysis of the left lobe of the liver, small gastric pouch, and omega-loop. Then, the gastro-jejunostomy was transected with a 45-mm Endo GIA endocutter with purple staples. The key-point was the creation of a gastro-gastric anastomosis between the small gastric pouch and the excluded stomach. Omega-loop jejunum was resected and the anastomosis was performed in order to avoid intestinal stenosis. The operative time was 232 min. Postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged in postoperative day 8. One month after the procedure, she has gained 10 kg (albumin 34 g/l) and stabilized her nutritional status without further nutritional support.
This is the first case described in the literature of a reversal omega-loop gastric bypass into normal anatomy and the first description of the use of a robotic approach. This intervention is challenging, but a feasible procedure. This technology may increase the number of surgeons who are able to provide the benefits of minimal invasive surgery to their patients without the increased risks of complications associated with initial learning curves.
The three-dimensional robotic vision, a stable camera, and the multiples degrees of freedom of the robotic instruments are the features that seem to provide greater surgical precision for these complex laparoscopic operations.
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Podnos YD, Jimenez JC, Wilson SE, et al. Complications after laparoscopic gastric bypass: a review of 3464 cases. Arch Surg. 2003;138(9):957–61.
Moon RC, Frommelt A, Teixeira AF, et al. Indications and outcomes of reversal of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2015;11(4):821–6.
Campos GM, Ziemelis M, Paparodis R, et al. Laparoscopic reversal of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: technique and utility for treatment of endocrine complications. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2014;10(1):36–43.
Lee WJ, Yu PJ, Wang W, et al. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y versus minigastric bypass for the treatment of morbid obesity. A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial. Ann Surg. 2005;242(1):20–8.
Chevallier JM, Arman GA, Guenzi M, et al. One thousand single anastomosis (omega loop) gastric bypass. Obes Surg. 2015;25(6):951–8.
Horgan S, Vanuno D. Robots in laparoscopic surgery. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2001;11(6):415–9.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained by all individual participants included in the study.
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Reche, F., Mancini, A., Borel, A. et al. Totally Robotic Reversal of Omega-Loop Gastric Bypass to Normal Anatomy. OBES SURG 26, 1994–1995 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11695-016-2257-2
- Omega-loop gastric bypass
- Mini gastric bypass
- Reversal procedure
- Robotic surgery