Evidence of Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Bariatric Surgery—Results of a Quality Assurance Trial in Bariatric Surgery in Germany from 2005 to 2007 and Review of the Literature
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Since January 1st, 2005, the current situation for bariatric surgery has been examined by means of a voluntary quality assurance study in Germany with a multicenter design in which 38 hospitals and surgical departments participated. The data are registered in cooperation with the Institute of Quality Assurance in Surgery at the Otto-von-Guericke University of Magdeburg (Germany).
Data describing peri-interventional characteristics were prospectively documented in an internet online data registry. All primary bariatric procedures performed since January 1st, 2005, were registered. In addition, reoperations in patients who had previously undergone primary surgical intervention were included. As a representative excerpt from the overall prospective multicenter observational study on obesity surgery, data on the type, regimen, and time course of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis were documented. From the number and spectrum of complications, the incidences of clinically manifest DVT or pulmonary embolism (PE) were derived during the in-hospital course and follow-up in conjunction with the type of surgical procedure and body mass index (BMI).
Overall, 3,122 bariatric procedures were performed at 38 German hospitals between January 2005 and December 2007. These procedures were subdivided into 2,869 primary operations and 253 revisions (sex ratio, male to female = 25.6:74.4%). The average BMI of all patients was 48.5 kg/m² in 2005, 48.4 kg/m² in 2006, and 48.0 kg/m² in 2007. In 2005 and 2006, gastric banding (GB) was the most commonly performed operation, followed by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP). In 2007, RYGBP was carried out in 42.1% of all bariatric procedures. Interestingly, the incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) was only 0.06%, whereas PE occurred in 0.06% of patients only after hospital discharge. The DVT prophylaxis protocol used has been changed for the last 2 years: the majority of patients with a BMI above 50 kg/m² received low-molecular-weight heparin twice a day.
In Germany, a trend from GB to sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and malabsorptive approach has been evaluated. This trend is associated with differences of the DVT prophylaxis regimen in the profile of bariatric surgical patients depending on BMI and the type of bariatric procedure. Despite the low incidence of DVT and pulmonary embolism (PE) detected, there is a lack of evidence on a reasonable regimen for sufficient DVT prophylaxis in bariatric surgery; instead, there are only recommendations from the guidelines and statements of a specific medical society. Therefore, prospective studies are necessary to determine the optimal DVT prophylaxis for bariatric surgical patients as well as obese patients undergoing surgery.
KeywordsBariatric surgery German multicenter trial Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) Pulmonary embolism (PE)
deep venous thrombosis
heparin of low molecular weight
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass
ventricle septum defect
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