Obesity Surgery

, Volume 19, Issue 10, pp 1414–1423 | Cite as

Ghrelin and Apolipoprotein AIV Levels Show Opposite Trends to Leptin Levels During Weight Loss in Morbidly Obese Patients

  • E. Pardina
  • M. D. López-Tejero
  • R. Llamas
  • R. Catalán
  • R. Galard
  • H. Allende
  • V. Vargas
  • A. Lecube
  • J. M. Fort
  • J. A. Baena-Fustegueras
  • J. Peinado-Onsurbe
Research Article



Although bariatric surgery is the most common procedure used to induce weight loss in morbidly obese patients, its effect on plasma satiety factors (leptin, ghrelin, and apolipoprotein (apo)-AIV) is controversial. The aim of this work was to analyze these parameters before and at different times after surgery.


Plasma was obtained from 34 patients before undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and during weight loss in the 12 months following surgery.


Morbidly obese patients had significantly higher values (147%) of leptin than normal-weight (NW) persons, while their ghrelin levels were 46% less than NW. Apo-AIV levels had approximately the same value in both groups (obese and NW). During weight loss, leptin decreased by 75% and ghrelin increased by 78%. Both parameters reached values less than or near NW, respectively, at 1 year after surgery. During the first month after surgery, apo-AIV plasma levels decreased (47%) but later increased and finally returned to preoperative values. Apo-AIV levels were correlated negatively with leptin and positively with ghrelin. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were positively correlated with those of ghrelin and apo-AIV.


During weight loss, plasma leptin and ghrelin could be good markers of total fat decrease. Ghrelin could also indicate gastric mucous improvement, whereas apo-AIV could indicate the recovery of intestinal function. Changes produced in the HDL levels of morbidly obese patients during weight loss suggest a decreased risk of coronary disease.


Bariatric surgery RYGBP HOMA-IR HDL Satiety 



homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance


nonesterified fatty acid


total cholesterol


Funding Source

This research was funded by the Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias del Instituto de Salud Carlos III of the Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo (PI030042, PI030024, and PI0700079). Both R. Llamas and E. Pardina were awarded grants from this institution.

Writing Assistance

English grammar and language have been corrected by American Journal Experts (

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that no conflict of interest exists.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Pardina
    • 1
  • M. D. López-Tejero
    • 1
  • R. Llamas
    • 1
  • R. Catalán
    • 2
  • R. Galard
    • 2
  • H. Allende
    • 3
  • V. Vargas
    • 3
  • A. Lecube
    • 4
  • J. M. Fort
    • 5
  • J. A. Baena-Fustegueras
    • 5
  • J. Peinado-Onsurbe
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultat de BiologiaUniversitat de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Biochemistry Department, Hospital Universitari Vall D’hebron, Institut De Recerca Vall D’hebronUniversitat Autónoma De BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  3. 3.CIBER de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERHD), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Institut de Recerca Vall D’HebronUniversitat Autónoma De BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  4. 4.CIBER de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas (CIBERDEM), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Diabetes Research Unit, Hospital Universitari Vall D’hebron, Institut De Recerca Vall D’hebronUniversitat Autónoma De BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  5. 5.Endocrinology Surgery Unit, Hospital Universitari Vall D’hebron, Institut De Recerca Vall D’hebronUniversitat Autónoma De BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain

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