Advertisement

Obesity Surgery

, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp 484–489 | Cite as

Larrad Biliopancreatic Diversion in Sprague-Dawley Rats. Analysis of Weight Loss Related to Food Intake

  • Hugo Mendieta-Zerón
  • Álvaro Larrad-JiménezEmail author
  • Gema Frühbeck
  • Katia Da Boit
  • C. Diéguez
Research Article

Abstract

Background

Existing medical therapeutic strategies to achieve and maintain clinically significant weight loss in morbid obesity remain limited and the biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) is still the most effective among the bariatric surgical procedures. Our objective was to evaluate the weight and food intake after this procedure in a rat model.

Methods

Rats randomly underwent one of the following protocols (1) BPD (n = 12) versus sham (n = 12) with a follow-up period of 30 days and (2) BPD (n = 4) versus pair-fed (PF; n = 4) with a follow-up period of 50 days. Under intraperitoneal anesthesia with ketamine–xilacine, a subcardinal corpo-antral gastrectomy was made, preserving the gastric fundus that was anastomosed to a jejunal limb after dissecting the proximal jejunum 5 cm below the ligament of Treitz to form the alimentary limb. The biliopancreatic limb was terminolaterally anastomosed to the distal ileum 5 cm above the ileocecal valve to form the common limb. Sham animals underwent only abdominal incision. Weight and food intake were measured every day.

Results

In protocol 1, after postoperative day 30, BPD rats exhibited a mean weight reduction of 17.9% while shams increased 12.4%. There was no difference in food intake adjusted per 100 g of body weight. In protocol 2, after postoperative day 50, BPD rats had a mean weight reduction of 22.6% and, despite increasing their caloric intake from a mean of 42.6 after 6 days to 65.8 kcal/day after 50 days, they kept a similar mean weight of 344.0 and 340.2 g, respectively; on the contrary, PF rats exhibited a 30.8% body weight gain.

Conclusions

After the BPD, body weight is maintained independently of changes in food and energy intake.

Keywords

Biliopancreatic diversion Food intake Weight 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Dr. Álvaro Larrad is funded by the Mutua Madrileña.

Dr. Hugo Mendieta Zerón is funded by the National Council of Science and Technology (CONACYT- Mexico) and belongs to the Youngs Talent Program of the Autonomous University of the State of Mexico (UAEMEX), Toluca, Mexico.

References

  1. 1.
    WHO. Facts sheet on diabetes, obesity and overweight. 2006.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nathan BM, Moran A. Metabolic complications of obesity in childhood and adolescence: more than just diabetes. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2008;15:21–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mark AL. Dietary therapy for obesity is a failure and pharmacotherapy is the future: a point of view. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2006;33:857–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ness-Abramof R, Apovian CM. Diet modification for treatment and prevention of obesity. Endocrine 2006;29:5–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Webb E, Viner R. Should metformin be prescribed to overweight adolescents in whom dietary/behavioural modifications have not helped? Arch Dis Child 2006;91:793–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    O’Brien PE, McPhail T, Chaston TB, et al. Systematic review of medium-term weight loss after bariatric operations. Obes Surg 2006;16:1032–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shen R, Dugay G, Rajaram K, et al. Impact of patient follow-up on weight loss after bariatric surgery. Obes Surg 2004;14:514–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Angstadt J, Whipple O. Developing a new bariatric surgery program. Am Surg 2007;73:1092–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Maggard MA, Shugarman LR, Suttorp M, et al. Meta-analysis: surgical treatment of obesity. Ann Intern Med 2005;142:547–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Collins BJ, Miyashita T, Schweitzer M, et al. Gastric bypass: why Roux-en-Y? A review of experimental data. Arch Surg 2007;142:1000–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cummings DE, Overduin J, Foster-Schubert KE. Gastric bypass for obesity: mechanisms of weight loss and diabetes resolution. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:2608–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Deitel M. Avoidance of weight regain after gastric bypass. Obes Surg 2001;11:474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cummings DE, Overduin J, Shannon MH, et al. Hormonal mechanisms of weight loss and diabetes resolution after bariatric surgery. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2005;1:358–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Scopinaro N, Gianetta E, Civalleri D, et al. Bilio-pancreatic bypass for obesity: 1. An experimental study in dogs. Br J Surg 1979;66:613–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Larrad-Jiménez A, Álvarez MP, Fernández MP, et al. Larrad biliopancreatic diversion. Description of an rat experimental model. Cir Esp 2008;83:89–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Marinari GM, Murelli F, Camerini G, et al. A 15-year evaluation of biliopancreatic diversion according to the Bariatric Analysis Reporting Outcome System (BAROS). Obes Surg 2004;14:325–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Larrad-Jiménez A, Díaz-Guerra CS, de Cuadros BP, et al. Short-, mid- and long-term results of Larrad biliopancreatic diversion. Obes Surg 2007;17:202–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hess DS, Hess DW, Oakley RS. The biliopancreatic diversion with the duodenal switch: results beyond 10 years. Obes Surg 2005;15:408–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Christou NV, Sampalis JS, Liberman M, et al. Surgery decreases long-term mortality, morbidity, and health care use in morbidly obese patients. Ann Surg 2004;240:416–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    le Roux CW, Aylwin SJ, Batterham RL, et al. Gut hormone profiles following bariatric surgery favor an anorectic state, facilitate weight loss, and improve metabolic parameters. Ann Surg 2006;243:108–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Young EA, Taylor MM, Taylor MK, et al. Gastric stapling for morbid obesity: gastrointestinal response in a rat model. Am J Clin Nutr 1984;40:293–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tichansky DS, Boughter JD Jr, Harper J, et al. Gastric bypass surgery in rats produces weight loss modeling after human gastric bypass. Obes Surg 2008. doi: 10.1007/s11695-008-9556-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Geliebter A, Westreich S, Gage D, et al. Intragastric balloon reduces food intake and body weight in rats. Am J Physiol 1986;251:R794–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Xu Y, Ohinata K, Meguid MM, et al. Gastric bypass model in the obese rat to study metabolic mechanisms of weight loss. J Surg Res 2002;107:56–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Furnes MW, Stenstrom B, Tommeras K, et al. Feeding behavior in rats subjected to gastrectomy or gastric bypass surgery. Eur Surg Res 2008;40:279–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Borg CM, le Roux CW, Ghatei MA, et al. Biliopancreatic diversion in rats is associated with intestinal hypertrophy and with increased GLP-1, GLP-2 and PYY levels. Obes Surg 2007;17:1193–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Guijarro A, Suzuki S, Chen C, et al. Characterization of weight loss and weight regain mechanisms after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2007;293:R1474–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sánchez-Cabezudo Díaz-Guerra C, Larrad-Jiménez A. Analysis of weight loss with the biliopancreatic diversion of Larrad: absolute failures or relative successes? Obes Surg 2002;12:249–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sjostrom L, Lindroos AK, Peltonen M, et al. Lifestyle, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors 10 years after bariatric surgery. N Engl J Med 2004;351:2683–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ballantyne GH, Gumbs A, Modlin IM. Changes in insulin resistance following bariatric surgery and the adipoinsular axis: role of the adipocytokines, leptin, adiponectin and resistin. Obes Surg 2005;15:692–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ballantyne GH. Peptide YY(1–36) and peptide YY(3–36): part II. Changes after gastrointestinal surgery and bariatric surgery. Obes Surg 2006;16:795–803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rubino F, Forgione A, Cummings DE, et al. The mechanism of diabetes control after gastrointestinal bypass surgery reveals a role of the proximal small intestine in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Ann Surg 2006;244:741–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hugo Mendieta-Zerón
    • 1
    • 5
  • Álvaro Larrad-Jiménez
    • 2
    • 5
    Email author
  • Gema Frühbeck
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Katia Da Boit
    • 1
    • 5
  • C. Diéguez
    • 1
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Physiology, School of MedicineUniversity of Santiago de Compostela (USC)Santiago de CompostelaSpain
  2. 2.General and Digestive Surgery Service, Endocrinometabolic Surgery UnitHospital QuirónMadridSpain
  3. 3.Metabolic Research Laboratory, Clínica Universitaria de NavarraUniversity of NavarraPamplonaSpain
  4. 4.Department of Endocrinology, Clínica Universitaria de NavarraUniversity of NavarraPamplonaSpain
  5. 5.CIBER de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN)Instituto de Salud Carlos IIIMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations