Effect of sorghum sourdough and nabag (zizyphus spina-christi) pulp powder on dough fermentation and quality characteristics of bread

  • Emad KarrarEmail author
  • Abubakr Musa
  • Sujitraj Sheth
  • Weining Huang
  • Frederick Sarpong
  • Xingguo Wang
Original Paper


Sorghum sourdough made with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and fruit products are of interest in the preparation of a variety of fermented baked products. In this study, different levels (10, 20, and 30%) of sorghum sourdough were fermented by a blend of L. plantarum and L. brevis and various levels of dry nabag pulp powder (1, 3, 5, and 7%). Physicochemical properties of dough and bread as well as the sensory evaluation were determined. Sorghum sourdough' pH decreased from 6.30 to 3.54, total titratable acidity (TTA) increased from 2.8 to 15 mL and bacteria count increased from 6.00E + 08 to 1.14E + 09, CFU/mL after 24 h of fermentation. The addition of sorghum sourdough and nabag powder progressively decreased pH and increased TTA values of bread and dough compared to the controls. Nabag powder significantly (p < 0.05) increased maximum dough fermentation height (Hm), compared to the control, however the other samples were lower (p < 0.05). The maximum gas fermentation height (H’m) and gas properties increased (p < 0.05) for all samples with different addition levels. Crust and crumb color were not affected by sorghum sourdough and nabag pulp powder except for 30% sorghum sourdough and 7% nabag pulp powder. These results showed sorghum sourdough and nabag pulp powder can be used in the bread formulations.


Sorghum sourdough Lactic acid bacteria Nabag fruit Dough fermentation Baking characteristics Bread quality 



The authors would like to acknowledge the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31571877, 31071595).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Synergetic Innovation Center of Food Safety and Nutrition, Collaborative Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control in Jiangsu Province, School of Food Science and TechnologyJiangnan UniversityWuxiPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Food Engineering and Technology, Faculty of Engineering and TechnologyUniversity of GeziraWad MedaniSudan
  3. 3.School of Food and Biological EngineeringJiangsu UniversityZhenjiangPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Biological Colloids, Ministry of Education, School of Chemical and Material EngineeringJiangnan UniversityWuxiPeople’s Republic of China

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