Determination of the aroma changes of Zhengrong vinegar during different processing steps by SPME–GC–MS and GC-O

  • Sam Al-Dalali
  • Fuping ZhengEmail author
  • Baoguo SunEmail author
  • Feng Chen
  • Peng Wang
  • Wenping Wang


Zhengrong vinegar is one of the renowned popular condiments in China, which has been consumed around Hebei province for about 136 years. Its different processing steps are considered as important and critical steps that are responsible for the generation of representative flavors besides the acetic acid. An HS-SPME coupled with GC–MS method was used to evaluate the changes of the volatiles of the vinegar that were generated during the different processing steps including before adding salt (BAS), after adding salt (AAS), after filtration (AF) and final product (FP). In addition, aroma-active volatiles of the final vinegar product were characterized by GC-O coupled with detection frequency technique (modified frequency, MF%) that is a combination of aroma intensity and aroma frequency values that can be used to improve the description of a reliable data from GC-O. Among the 42 detected volatiles, 38 of them were positively identified by their corresponding authentic compounds. Besides, 24 volatiles were recognized as aroma-active volatiles. On the other hand, the content of individual volatile groups was decreased along with the continuation of the fermentation process from the BAS step to FP step, except the aldehydes group that displayed a slight increase. Of which, 2-pentylfuran and ethyl heptanoate disappeared in the AF and FP samples. The main contributors to the Zhengrong aroma profile that had MF (%) > 80 included isovaleric acid, 2-acetoxy-3-butanone, hexanoic acid, ethyl hexanoate, 3-(methylthio)propyl acetate, decanal and 2-phenyl-2-butenal, while the volatile compounds that had a middle MF in a range between 70 and 80 were 2-methylbutanoic acid, tetramethylpyrazine, nonanal, 1,2-dimethoxybenzene, 4-ethylphenol, ethyl benzoate, ethyl benzeneacetate, 2-phenylethyl acetate and 4-ethylguaiacol.


Zhengrong vinegar Different processing steps HS-SPME GC–MS GC-O Modified frequency 



This work was financially supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFD0400500).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Not applicable.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human HealthBeijing Technology and Business UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of Food Science and TechnologyIbb UniversityIbbYemen
  3. 3.Department of Food, Nutrition and Packaging SciencesClemson UniversityClemsonUSA
  4. 4.Institute of BrewingBeijing Academy of Food SciencesBeijingChina

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