Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization

, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 3307–3317 | Cite as

Evaluation of baking conditions for frozen doughs

  • Eeva Varmola
  • Dattatray BedadeEmail author
  • Shweta Deshaware
  • Heikki Ojamo
  • Mamdouh El Haj Assad
  • Salem Shamekh
Original Paper


The baking performance of fresh, non-fermented, pre-fermented and pre-rested doughs were investigated using different types of flours. Effect of protein content in wheat flour and effect of oat and barley supplementation on wheat dough and baked bread was evaluated. Effect of mixing speed, yeast concentration and two different proofing methods were also studied. Wheat flour with higher protein content gave a higher volume and specific volume. The substitution of wheat flour with increasing concentrations of oat and barley flour progressively decreased loaf and specific volume significantly. Prolonging the proofing time after thawing resulted in a good bread quality whereas high mixing speed did not affect the bread quality. The operating conditions for the proofing step were at 35 °C temperature and 80% relative humidity for 30 min. Higher concentration of baking yeast results in low quality crust in baked bread. Yeast concentration of 1.3% showed the best option for bread preparation, at which the bread moisture content was the highest. The results also showed that wheat flour with 13.3% protein content yielded higher volume than bread made from 10% protein content. The dough was stored at − 20 °C and the baking conditions were at 215 °C temperature for 25 min. Sensory studies did not yield significant variation in different bread preparations. The pre-rested frozen dough, gave the best baked bread compared to the pre-fermented and non-fermented breads.


Frozen dough Fermentation Organoleptic Pre-resting 



The authors of this study thanking Professor Kaisa Poutanen for her valuable comments after reading our manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11694_2019_253_MOESM1_ESM.docx (12 kb)
Supplementary file1 (DOCX 12 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eeva Varmola
    • 1
  • Dattatray Bedade
    • 2
    Email author
  • Shweta Deshaware
    • 2
  • Heikki Ojamo
    • 3
  • Mamdouh El Haj Assad
    • 4
  • Salem Shamekh
    • 3
    • 5
  1. 1.Metropolia University of Applied SciencesHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.Department of Food Engineering and TechnologyInstitute of Chemical TechnologyMumbaiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Biotechnology and Chemical Technology, School of Chemical TechnologyAalto UniversityEspooFinland
  4. 4.SREE DepartmentUniversity of SharjahSharjahUnited Arab Emirates
  5. 5.Juva Truffle CenterJuvaFinland

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