Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization

, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 3162–3172 | Cite as

Solvent free-microwave green extraction of essential oil from orange peel (Citrus sinensis L.): effects on shelf life of flavored liquid whole eggs during storage under commercial retail conditions

  • Malek Aboudaou
  • Mohamed Amine Ferhat
  • Mohamed Hazzit
  • Agustín Ariño
  • Djamel DjenaneEmail author
Original Paper


This study compares the extraction of essential oil (EO) from orange peel (Citrus sinensis L.) by three different methods, namely solvent-free microwave assisted extraction (SFME), traditional hydrodistillation (HD) and cold-pressing (CP), in terms of efficiency and chemical composition using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Microstructure analysis of the behaviour of the epithelial cells of the orange peel bark was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that the traditional HD extraction method caused greater modifications of the cellular structure than the SFME method. The comparison between SFME and HD indicated that SFME showed advantages such as faster kinetics and higher efficiency with similar yields (0.40% dry basis in 30 min by SFME versus 3 h by HD). The antioxidant activity of EO was evaluated in vitro by the DPPH assay, resulting in high radical scavenging activity exceeding 80%. The EO was added at three levels (0.1, 0.3, and 0.5%, v/v) to liquid whole egg in order to evaluate its effect on oxidative stability and organoleptic attributes (colour and odour) during simulated cold commercial retail conditions. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay showed that the EO addition significantly reduced the lipid oxidation. The results obtained confirm orange peel EO as a promising functional food ingredient.


Orange peel essential oil Green extraction Scanning electron microscopy Antioxidant Liquid whole eggs Shelf-life Retail conditions 



The present research was carried out with the financial support of the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research of Algeria (Grant F00520140089) and the Spanish AECID/PCI (Grant A/033506/10) as well as the Government of Aragón and FEDER 2014-2020 (Grant Grupo A06_17R).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

No conflict of interest was reported by the authors.


  1. 1.
    FAOSTAT (2018), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Statistics division. Accessed 15 Jan 2018
  2. 2.
    C. Torres-Álvarez, A. Núñez González, J. Rodríguez, S. Castillo, C. Leos-Rivas, J.G. Báez-González, CyTA J. Food 15(1), 129–135 (2017)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Z. Rehman, Food Chem. 99, 450–454 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    P. Singh, R. Shukla, B. Prakash, A. Kumar, S. Singh, P.K. Mishra, N.K. Dubey, Food Chem. Toxicol. 48, 1734–1740 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    European Commission (2018), European Union lists of flavourings. Accessed 15 Jan 2018
  6. 6.
    M.A. Ferhat, B.Y. Meklati, J. Smadja, F. Chemat, J. Chromatogr. A 1112, 121–126 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    L. Ying, A.S. Fabiano-Tixier, M.A. Vian, F. Chemat, Trends Anal. Chem. 47, 1–11 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    V.I. Fisinin, T.T. Papazyan, P.F. Surai, World's Poult. Sci. J. 64, 85–98 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. Wu, Food processing, in Food Processing: Principles and Applications, ed. by S. Clark, S. Jung, B. Lamsal (Wiley, Hoboken, 2014), pp. 437–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    P.J. Cullen, B.J. Tiwari. V. Valdramidis, Novel Thermal and Non-Thermal Technologies for Fluid Foods. 1st edn. (Academic Press: San Diego, CA, 2012).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    R.S. Uysal, I.H. Boyaci, E.A. Soykut, N. Ertas, Food Chem. 216, 201–208 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    R. Scherer, H.T. Godoy, Food Chem. 112, 654–658 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. Altuntas, R. Aydin, J. Lipids 2014, 1–4 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Y. Jin, N. Yang, X. Duan, F. Wu, Q. Tong, X. Xu, Biosys. Eng. 129, 70–77 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. Folch, M. Lees, G.H.S. Stanley, J. Biol. Chem. 226, 497–509 (1957)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    D. Djenane, J. Yangüela, D. Gómez, P. Roncalés, J. Food Safety 32, 37–47 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    D. Djenane, J.A. Beltrán, J. Camo, P. Roncalés, J. Food Sci. Technol. 53, 4244–4257 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    C.I.E. (International Commission on Ilumination), Supplement No. 15 to CIE publication No. 15 (E-1.3.1) 1971/(TO-1.3), 1978, Paris, FranceGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M.-T. Golmakani, K. Rezaei, Food Chem. 109, 925–930 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    M.T. Golmakani, M. Moayyedi, Food Sci. Nutr. 3, 506–518 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    N.T. Tu, L.X. Thanh, A. Une, H. Ukeda, M. Sawamura, Flav. Fragr. J. 17, 169–174 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    D. Djenane, Foods 4, 208–228 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    K. Hosni, N. Zahed, R. Chrif, I. Abid, W. Medfei, M. Kallel, N. Brahim, H. Sebei, Food Chem. 123, 1098–1104 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    J. Bustamante, S. van Stempvoort, M. García-Gallarreta, J.A. Houghton, H.K. Briers, V.L. Budarin, A.S. Matharu, J.H. Clark, J. Clean. Prod. 137, 598–605 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. Boukroufa, C. Boutekedjiret, L. Petigny, N. Rakotomanomana, F. Chemat, Ultrasound Sonochem. 24, 72–79 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    A. Ferhat, A.-S. Fabiano-Tixier, M.E. Maataoui, J.-F. Maingonnat, M. Romdhane, F. Chemat, Food Chem. 125, 255–261 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    N. Sahraoui, M.A. Vian, M. El Maataoui, C. Boutekedjiret, F. Chemat, Innov. Food Sci. Emerg Technol. 12, 163–170 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Q. Chen, Z. Hu, F.Y.D. Yao, H. Liang, LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 66, 538–545 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    J. Bernard, Sci. Vie 214, 68–73 (2001)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    N. Bousbia, M.A. Vian, M.A. Ferhat, B.Y. Meklati, F. Chemat, J. Food Eng. 90, 409–413 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    F. Luro, N. Venturini, G. Costantino, J. Paolini, P. Ollitrault, J. Costa, Phytochemistry 77, 186–196 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    D.R.L. Caccioni, M. Guizzardi, D.M. Biondi, A. Renda, G. Ruberto, Int. J. Food Microbiol. 43, 73–79 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    J.R.J. Paré, J.M.R. Bélanger, Instrumental Methods in Food Analysis (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1997)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    S.S. Chen, M. Spiro, Flav. Fragr. J. 10, 101–112 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    M. Bacanli, A.A. Basaran, N. Basaran, Food Chem. Toxicol. 81, 160–170 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    F. Fancello, G.L. Petretto, S. Zara, M.L. Sanna, R. Addis, M. Maldini, M. Foddai, J.P. Rourke, M. Chessa, G. Pintore, LWT-Food. Sci. Technol. 69, 579–585 (2016)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    M.R.M. Junior, T.A.A. Silva, G.C. Franchi, A. Nowill, G.M. Pastore, S. Hyslop, Food Chem. 116, 8–12 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    D. Djenane, J. Yangüela, L. Montañes, M. Djerbal, P. Roncalés, Food Control 22, 1046–1053 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    M. Viuda-Martos, M.A. Mohamady, J. Fernández-López, K.A. Abd El Razik, E.A. Omer, J.A. Pérez-Alvarez, E. Sendra, Food Control 22, 1715–1722 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    J. Fernandez-Lopez, N. Zhi, L. Aleson-Carbonell, J.A. Perez-Alvarez, V. Kuri, Meat Sci. 69, 371–380 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    P.M. De Souza, A. Fernandez, Food Control 22, 1385–1392 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Y. Alparslan, H.H. Yapici, C. Metin, T. Baygar, A. Günlü, T. Baygar, LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 72, 457–466 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    D. Djenane, M. Aboudaou, M.A. Ferhat, A. Ouelhadj, A. Ariño, J. Essen, Oil Res. 31(5), 444–455 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Food Quality and Food SafetyUniversity Mouloud MAMMERITizi-OuzouAlgeria
  2. 2.Department of Food Science and TechnologyNational Institute of AgronomyAlgerAlgeria
  3. 3.Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Valorisation of BiomasseEcole Normale SupérieureAlgerAlgeria
  4. 4.Facultad de Veterinaria, Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2)Universidad de Zaragoza‐CITAZaragozaSpain

Personalised recommendations