Microwave-assisted extraction of total saponins from Physalis alkekengi L. var. franchetii (Mast.) Makino and their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity
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In this study, the optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of total saponins from P. alkekengi (TSP) and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity were discussed. According to the results in Box–Behnken design, the nonlinear regression model obtained from the Design-Expert software was a reasonable fit for the experiment data (R2 = 0.9994). Results showed that the optimal extraction conditions with a yield of 6.41 ± 0.25 mg/g for crude TSP extraction were aqueous ethanol (80%) to raw material ratios of 32:1 (mL:g), extraction power of 300 W, and extraction time of 29 min. The content of the total saponins in the purified extract was 91.32 ± 1.57%. Bioassay indicated that TSP could significantly inhibited the release of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a dose-dependent manner, and down-regulated the expressions of related genes. In addition, TSP treatment could also suppress the elevated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) gene expression in LPS-induced RAW 264.7. Moreover, the secretions of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in stimulated macrophages were also restrained in a concentration-dependent way. All these results indicated that TSP exhibited anti-inflammatory effects by suppressing the transcription of some inflammatory cytokine genes, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory properties of TSP may be helpful to mitigate inflammatory diseases as well as some other related diseases. The overall results indicated that TSP had potential as anti-inflammatory lead compounds for follow-up research.
KeywordsPhysalis alkekengi L. var. franchetii Saponins Extraction optimization Anti-inflammatory activity
This study was supported by the grants from the Shanxi Science and Technology Department (Grant Nos. 2015081024, 20150311020-2) and the China Scholarship Council (Grant No. 201706790044).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.