Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization

, Volume 13, Issue 3, pp 2426–2437 | Cite as

Evaluating the role of microwave-baking and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.)/nigella (Nigella sativa L.) on acrylamide growth and antioxidants potential in biscuits

  • Waleed AL-Ansi
  • Amer Ali Mahdi
  • Qais Ali Al-Maqtari
  • Mingcong Fan
  • Li WangEmail author
  • Yan Li
  • Haifeng Qian
  • Hui Zhang
Original Paper


This study aimed to investigate the impact of fennel seeds (FS) and black cumin seeds (BS) addition into the formulation of conventional and microwave-baked biscuits on the nutritional, physical, and sensory properties. Microwave biscuits were baked at 700 W for 90 s. Antioxidant activity DPPH·, ABTS·+, and total phenolic compounds (TPC) were evaluated by using a UNICO UV-2100 spectrophotometer, acrylamide content was evaluated using UPLC–ESI–MS/MS. The results indicated that microwave-baked biscuits have higher antioxidant activities DPPH·, ABTS·+, TPC, moisture, and breaking strength and lower acrylamide content compared to conventional-baked biscuits. However, the addition of BS gradually decreased the acrylamide content from 355.2 µg/kg in control samples to 138.6 µg/kg in conventional-baked biscuits and from 306.9 µg/kg in control samples to 97.8 µg/kg in microwave-baked ones. Meanwhile, with FS biscuits, acrylamide is decreased to the minimum limit of the quantitation in microwave-baked biscuits and 38%, 61%, and 78% in conventional-baked ones at 2%, 4%, 6% FS respectively. Correspondingly, FS samples had higher antioxidant activities in DPPH·, ABTS·+ and TPC. Acrylamide was correlated to ABTS·+, DPPH·, and colour values on high negative levels (r = − 0.914, − 0.943, − 0.947 and − 0.943) at P < 0.01. High antioxidants activity and low acrylamide content indicated the advantages of microwave-baking and addition of FS or BS to biscuit formulation and they could be used in food industries as a potential plant source antioxidant as well as enhancing the sensory properties of the biscuits.


Antioxidants Acrylamide reduction Fennel seeds Black cumin seeds Biscuits Microwave baking 



The authors are thankful and grateful to China Scholarship Council, National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31471617), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. JUSRP51708A), and the National First-class Discipline Program of Food Science and Technology (JUFSTR20180103) for the financial support. Authors are also thankful to Dr. Bilal Sajid Mushtaq, Dr. Aqsa Ahmed, and Miss. Amina Naimova for the technical support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    K. Masisi, T. Beta, M.H. Moghadasian, Antioxidant properties of diverse cereal grains: a review on in vitro and in vivo studies. Food Chem. 196, 90–97 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    R.H. Liu, Whole grain phytochemicals and health. J. Cereal Sci. 46, 207–219 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. Gandhi, N. Kotwaliwale, J. Kawalkar, D. Srivastav, V. Parihar, P.R. Nadh, Effect of incorporation of defatted soyflour on the quality of sweet biscuits. J. Food Sci. Technol. 38, 502–503 (2001)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    C. Caleja, L. Barros, A.L. Antonio, M.B.P. Oliveira, I.C. Ferreira, A comparative study between natural and synthetic antioxidants: Evaluation of their performance after incorporation into biscuits. Food Chem. 216, 342–346 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    V. Reddy, A. Urooj, A. Kumar, Evaluation of antioxidant activity of some plant extracts and their application in biscuits. Food Chem. 90, 317–321 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. Bajaj, A. Urooj, P. Prabhasankar, Effect of incorporation of mint on texture, colour and sensory parameters of biscuits. Int. J. Food Prop. 9, 691–700 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    T. Kulisic, A. Radonic, V. Katalinic, M. Milos, Use of different methods for testing antioxidative activity of oregano essential oil. Food Chem. 85, 633–640 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M.H.H. Roby, M.A. Sarhan, K.A.H. Selim, K.I. Khalel, Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil and extracts of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L) and chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L). Ind. Crops Prod. 44, 437–445 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Oktay, İ. Gülçin, Ö.İ. Küfrevioğlu, Determination of in vitro antioxidant activity of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seed extracts. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 36, 263–271 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. Saxena, S. Rathore, Y. Diwakar, R. Kakani, K. Kant, P. Dubey, R. Solanki, L. Sharma, D. Agarwal, S. John, Genetic diversity in fatty acid composition and antioxidant capacity of Nigella sativa L. genotypes. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 78, 198–207 (2017)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    P. Dubey, B. Singh, B. Mishra, K. Kant, R. Solanki, Nigella (Nigella sativa L.): a high value seed spice with immense medicinal potential. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 86, 967–979 (2016)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    O.A. Badary, R. A. Taha, A.M. Gamal El-Din, M.H. Abdel-Wahab, Thymoquinone is a potent superoxide anion scavenger. Drug Chem. Toxicol. 26, 87–98 (2003)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    N. Haase, K.H. Grothe, B. Matthäus, K. Vosmann, M. Lindhauer, Acrylamide formation and antioxidant level in biscuits related to recipe and baking. Food Addit. Contam. 29, 1230–1238 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    D.S. Mottram, B.L. Wedzicha, A.T. Dodson, Food chemistry: acrylamide is formed in the Maillard reaction. Nature 419, 448–449 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. Becalski, B.P.Y. Lau, D. Lewis, S.W. Seaman, Acrylamide in foods: Occurrence, sources, and modeling. J. Agric. Food. Chem. 51, 802–808 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    E. Demirok, N. Kolsarıcı, Effect of green tea extract and microwave pre-cooking on the formation of acrylamide in fried chicken drumsticks and chicken wings. Food Res. Int. 63, 290–298 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    T.M. Amrein, B. Schönbächler, F. Escher, R. Amadò, Acrylamide in gingerbread: Critical factors for formation and possible ways for reduction. J. Agric. Food. Chem. 52, 4282–4288 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    H.T. Nguyen, M. van Boekel. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during biscuit baking. Part II: Effect of the ratio of reducing sugars and asparagine. Food Chem. 230, 14–23 (2017)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    E. Capuano, V. Fogliano, Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF): A review on metabolism, toxicity, occurrence in food and mitigation strategies. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 44, 793–810 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    S. Belgin Erdoǧdu, T.K. Palazoǧlu, V. Gökmen, H.Z. Şenyuva, H.İ. Ekiz, Reduction of acrylamide formation in French fries by microwave pre-cooking of potato strips. J. Sci. Food Agric. 87, 133–137 (2007)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    G. Sumnu, S. Sahin, M. Sevimli, Microwave, infrared and infrared-microwave combination baking of cakes. J. Food Eng. 71, 150–155 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    S. Protonotariou et al., Effect of jet milled whole wheat flour in biscuits properties. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 74, 106–113 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    W. AL-Ansi, A.A. Mahdi, Y. Li, H. Qian, and Li Wang, Optimization and acceptability evaluation of shapporah biscuits formulated by different ingredients: using response surface methodology (RSM). J. Food Nutr. Res. 6,192–199 (2018)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    S. Umbach, E. Davis, J. Gordon, Effects of Heat and Water Transport on the Bagel-Making Process: Conventional and Microwave Baking (Cereal Chem, USA, 1990)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    G.W. Latimer, Official methods of analysis of AOAC International: AOAC international (2012)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    M. Kaur, K.S. Sandhu, A. Arora, A. Sharma, Gluten free biscuits prepared from buckwheat flour by incorporation of various gums: physicochemical and sensory properties. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 62, 628–632 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    A.A. Noor Aziah, A.Y. Mohamad Noor, L.H. Ho, Physicochemical and organoleptic properties of cookies incorporated with legume flour. Int. Food Res. J. 19, 1539–1543 (2012)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    R. Zouari et al., Cookies from composite wheat–sesame peels flours: Dough quality and effect of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant addition. Food chem. 194, 758–769 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    M. Mesias, F. Holgado, G. Marquezruiz, F.J. Morales, Risk/benefit considerations of a new formulation of wheat-based biscuit supplemented with different amounts of chia flour. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 73, 528–535 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    V.L. Singleton, J.A. Rossi, Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 16, 144–158 (1965)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    A. A. Mahdi, M. M. Rashed, W. Al-Ansi, M. I. Ahmed, M. Obadi, Q. Jiang, H. Wang, Enhancing bio-recovery of bioactive compounds extracted from Citrus medica L. Var. sarcodactylis: optimization performance of integrated of pulsed-ultrasonic/microwave technique. J. Food Meas. Charact.
  32. 32.
    Y. Zhang, J. Jiao, Z. Cai, Y. Zhang, Y. Ren, An improved method validation for rapid determination of acrylamide in foods by ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A 1142, 194–198 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    C. Chu, A. Resurreccion, Optimization of a chocolate peanut spread using response surface methodology (RSM). J. Sens. Stud. 19, 237–260 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    A. Błońska, A. Marzec, A. Błaszczyk, Instrumental evaluation of acoustic and mechanical texture properties of short-dough biscuits with different content of fat and inulin. J. Texture Stud. 45, 226–234 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    G. Sumnu, A review on microwave baking of foods. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 36, 117–127 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    G. Sumnu, S. Sahin, Baking Using Microwave Processing. The Microwave Processing of Foods, (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2005), pp. 119–141Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    S.S. Ahmad, M.T. Morgan, M.R. Okos, Effects of microwave on the drying, checking and mechanical strength of baked biscuits. J. Food Eng. 50, 63–75 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    J. Park, I. Choi, Y. Kim, Cookies formulated from fresh okara using starch, soy flour and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose have high quality and nutritional value. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 63, 660–666 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    K. Ryan, M. Brewer, Physical properties of sugar-snap cookies using granule surface deproteinated wheat starch. J. Texture Stud. 37, 442–457 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    B. Pareyt, J.A. Delcour, The role of wheat flour constituents, sugar, and fat in low moisture cereal based products: a review on sugar-snap cookies. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 48, 824–839 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    A.M. Mohammad, P. Rimon, G. Kashif, A.H. Rukshana, C. Tuhina, A. Nurul, F. Sahena, A.K. Azad, I.S.M. Zaidul, In vitro antioxidant activities of black cumin seeds oil and computational evaluation of thymoquinone and thymohydroquinone as inhibitors of EGFR tyrosine kinase. In Preparation and Processing of Religious and Cultural Foods 173–192 (2018)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    M. Mallick, A. Bose, S. Mukhi, Comparative evaluation of the antioxidant activity of some commonly used spices. Int. J. PharmTech. Res. 9, 1–8 (2016)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    J. Cheng, X. Chen, S. Zhao, Y. Zhang, Antioxidant-capacity-based models for the prediction of acrylamide reduction by flavonoids. Food Chem. 168, 90–99 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    F. Pedreschi, K. Kaack, K. Granby, E. Troncoso, Acrylamide reduction under different pre-treatments in French fries. J. Food Eng. 79, 1287–1294 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    A.K. Meghavarnam, S. Janakiraman, Evaluation of acrylamide reduction potential of l-asparaginase from Fusarium culmorum (ASP-87) in starchy products. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 89, 32–37 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    M. Anese, M.C. Nicoli, G. Verardo, M. Munari, G. Mirolo, R. Bortolomeazzi, Effect of vacuum roasting on acrylamide formation and reduction in coffee beans. Food Chem. 145, 168–172 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Food Science and TechnologyJiangnan UniversityWuxiChina
  2. 2.School of Food Science and TechnologyJiangnan UniversityWuxiChina
  3. 3.National Engineering Research Center for Functional FoodJiangnan UniversityWuxiChina
  4. 4.Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of AgricultureSana’a UniversitySana’aYemen
  5. 5.State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, National Engineering Research Center for Functional FoodJiangnan UniversityWuxiChina

Personalised recommendations