Advertisement

Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization

, Volume 13, Issue 3, pp 2347–2356 | Cite as

Cactus pear antioxidants: a comparison between fruit pulp, fruit peel, fruit seeds and cladodes of eight different cactus pear cultivars (Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia robusta)

  • Maryna de WitEmail author
  • Alba du Toit
  • Gernot Osthoff
  • Arno Hugo
Original Paper
  • 45 Downloads

Abstract

The cactus pear plant is an under-valued food source with health-promoting properties that thrives in arid and semi-arid regions due to its efficient use of water. Eight South African cultivars from two Opuntia species were investigated for their antioxidant content and potential. The fresh fruit (pulp), peel, seeds and cladodes of each cultivar were compared in the study. Analysis included betalains, ascorbic acid, phenolics and carotenoids. The activity of the antioxidants were determined by using the DPPH method and by measuring the chelating activity of ferrous ions. When % DPPH was tested, peel and cladodes were consistently the highest, while in the % chelating activity tests, fruit pulp and seeds were the best tissue types. Cladodes contained more phenolics and carotenes than fruit regardless of the cultivar. For pulp and peel, the cultivar that contained the highest antioxidant content and potential was Robusta with its high content of betalains followed by Gymno-Carpo and Ofer with high ascorbic acid levels. The study proves that the fruit (pulp), peel and seeds from different cultivars contain specific antioxidants relating to the colour of the fruit, but the cladodes of any cultivar contain similar and highly effective antioxidants.

Keywords

Ascorbic acid Betalains Carotenes Chelating activity DPPH Phenolics 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Dr. H. J. Fouché from the ARC for providing the cactus pear fruit. This study is supported by the University of the Free State (UFS) Strategic Academic Cluster 4 for funding.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest be it academic, personal political or financial.

Research involving human and/or animal participants

No humans or animals took part in this study.

Informed consent

All the authors participated/contributed to this study.

References

  1. 1.
    M.R. Mosshammer, F.C. Stintzing, R. Carle, J. Food Sci. 71, 400–406 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. Piga, J. Prof. Assoc. Cactus Dev. 6, 9–22 (2004)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    I. Gülçin, Arch. Toxicol. 86(3), 345–391 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J.A. Fernández-López, L. Almela, J.M. Obón, R. Castellar, Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 65(3), 253–259 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. Budinski, R. Wolfram, A. Oguogho, Y. Efthimiou, Y. Stamatopoulos, H. Sinzinger, Prostaglandins. Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids 65(1), 45–50 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    L. Tesoriere, M. Fazzari, M. Allegra, M.A. Livrea, J. Agric. Food Chem. 53, 7851–7855 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J.O. Kuti, Food Chem. 85(4), 527–533 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. du Toit, M. de Wit, G. Osthoff, A. Hugo, Acta Hortic. 1067, 187–192 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    N. Yeddes, J.K. Chérif, S. Guyot, H. Sotin, M.T. Ayadi, Antioxidants 2, 37–51 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    B. Melgar, M.I. Dias, A. Ciric, M. Sokovic, E.M. Garcia-Castello, A.D. Rodriguez-Lopez, L. Barros, I. Ferreira, Ind. Crops Prod. 107, 353–359 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    H. Chahdoura, J.C.M. Barreira, L. Barros, C. Santos-Buelga, I.C.F.R. Ferreira, L. Achour, Ind. Crops Prod. 65, 383–389 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    G.M. Coetzer, H.J. Fouché, Acta Hortic. 1067, 89–96 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. de Wit, P. Nel, G. Osthoff, M.T. Labuschagne, Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 65, 136–145 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    E. Castellanos-Santiago, E. Yahia, J. Agric. Food Chem. 56(14), 5758–5764 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    F.C. Stintzing, K.M. Herbach, M.R. Mosshamer, R. Carle, S. Sellapan, C.C. Akoh, J. Agric. Food Chem. 53, 442–452 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    C.S. James, Analytical chemistry of foods (1995), https://www.cabdirect.org. Accessed 22 Nov 2013
  17. 17.
    M.T. Sumaya-Martínez, S. Cruz-Jaime, E. Madrigal-Santillán, J.D. García-Paredes, R. Cariño-Cortés, N. Cruz-Cansino, Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12(10), 6452–6468 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    F.J. Morales, S. Jiménez-Pérez, Food Chem. 72(1), 119–125 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    I. Gülçin, M. Elmastat, H.Y. Aboul-enein, Phytother. Res. 21, 354–361 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    NCSS 11 Statistical Software, Version 11.0.20. Released 1 November 2018 (NCSS, LLC, Kaysville). http://ncss.com/software/ncss
  21. 21.
    A. Cardador-Martínez, C. Jiménez-Martínez, G. Sandoval, Ciênc. Technol. Alimentos Campinas 31(3), 782–788 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    J.O. Kuti, J. Hortic. Sci. 67, 861–868 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    T. Hernández-Pérez, Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 60(4), 195–200 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. Castañeda-Yañez, S.T. Martín-del-Campo, A. San-Martín, A. Cardador-Martínez, J. Food Res. 7(3), 16–26 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    C. Albano, C. Negro, N. Tommasi, C. Gerard, G. Mita, A. Miceli, L. De Bellis, F. Blando, Antioxidants 4, 269–280 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    F.C. Stintzing, R. Carle, Mol. Food Res. 49, 175–194 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    C. Saenz, J. Arid Environ. 46, 209–225 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    J.C. Guevara, E.M. Yahia, E. Brito de la Fuente, LWT Food Sci. Technol. 34(7), 445–451 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    E.M. Yahia, C. Mondragon-Jacobo, Food Res. Int. 44(7), 2311–2318 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Y.S. Coria Cayupán, M.J. Ochoa, M.A. Nazareno, Food Chem. 126(2), 514–519 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    M.E. Jaramillo-Flores, L. González-Cruz, M. Cornejo-Mazón, L. Dorantes-Álvarez, G.F. Guitiérrez-López, H. Hernández-Sánchez, Food Sci. Technol. Int. 9(4), 271–278 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    L. Medina-Torres, E.J. Vernon-Carter, J.A. Gallegos-Infante, N.E. Rocha-Guzman, E.E. Herrera-Valencia, F. Calderas, R. Jiménez-Alvarado, J. Sci. Food Agric. 91(6), 1001–1005 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    S. Bensadón, D. Hervert-Hernández, S.G. Sáyago-Ayerdi, I. Goñi, Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 65(3), 210–216 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    R.A. Chavez-Santoscoy, J.A. Gutierrez-Uribe, S.O. Serna-Saldívar, Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 64(2), 146–152 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    P. Morales, E. Ramírez-Moreno, M. de C. Sanchez-Mata, A.M. Carvalho, I.C.F.R. Ferreira, Food Res. Int. 46(1), 279–285 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    H. Alimi, N. Hfaeidh, Z. Bouoni, M. Sakly, K. Ben Rhouma, Alcohol 46(3), 235–243 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    E.M. Galati, M.R. Mondello, D. Guiffrida, G. Dugo, N. Miceli, S. Pergolizzi, M.F. Taviano, J. Agric. Food Chem. 51, 4903–4908 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    F.M. Abou-Elella, R.F.M. Ali, Biochem. Anal. Biochem. 3(2), 1–9 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    L. Santos-Zea, J.A. Gutierrez-Uribe, S.O. Serna-Saldivar, J. Agric. Food Chem. 59(13), 7054–7061 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    L. Medina-Torres, E.E. García-Cruz, F. Calderas, R.F. González Laredo, G. Sánchez-Olivares, J.A. Gallegos-Infante, N.E. Rocha-Guzmán, J. Rodríguez-Ramírez, LWT Food Sci. Technol. 50(2), 642–650 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    E. Ramírez-Moreno, R. Cariño-Cortés, N. del Socorro Cruz-Cansino, L. Delgado-Olivares, J.A. Ariza-Ortega, V.Y. Montañez-Izquierdo, M.M. Hernández-Herrero, T. Filardo-Kerstupp, J. Food Qual. (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/3075907 Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    I. Figueroa-Cares, M.T. Martínez-Damián, E. Rodríguez-Pérez, M.T. Colinas-León, S. Valle-Guadarrama, S. Ramírez-Ramírez, C. Gallegos-Vázquez, Agrociencia 44, 673–771 (2010)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    D. Butera, L. Tesoriere, F. Di Gaudio, A. Bongiorno, M. Allegra, A.M. Pintaudi, R. Kohen, M.A. Livrea, J. Agric. Food Chem. 50, 6895–6901 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    J. Crossa, Adv. Agron. 44, 55–85 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Microbial, Biochemical and Food Biotechnology, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural SciencesUniversity of the Free StateBloemfonteinSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Consumer Science, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural SciencesUniversity of the Free StateBloemfonteinSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations