Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization

, Volume 13, Issue 3, pp 2328–2338 | Cite as

Influence of extraction conditions on structural and functional characteristics of black cumin protein concentrates and ACE-inhibition in their hydrolyzates

  • Özgenur Coşkun
  • Bilal Çakır
  • Beyza Vahapoğlu
  • İbrahim GülserenEmail author
Original Paper


Cold press oils are value-added food ingredients that are increasingly produced. Due to the removal of oil, protein content in cold press deoiled meals substantially increase. Here, we made an attempt to manufacture protein concentrates from cold press meals of black cumin and studied the influence of aqueous (alkali extraction-isoelectric precipitation, AE-IP) and organic (n-hexane) extraction conditions on the structure and functionality of these concentrates. To determine the basic structural attributes, SDS-PAGE and 2D-electrophoresis, DSC, rheological and FT-IR analysis were utilized. Black cumin proteins contained both α- and β-secondary structural elements, and the proteins were potentially glycosylated. This in turn affected their gel-like behavior prior to heating. The presence of a number of high pI proteins was also detected via 2D-electrophoresis. Functional characteristics of the concentrates were investigated based on solubility, water and oil holding capacities, and dynamic surface tension analysis. Deoiled meals contained 22.3% oil, which was only slightly affected by aqueous extraction. Protein content in the meals was approx. 26.5% which increased to 57.7 and 65.8%, after aqueous (AE-IP) extraction and both aqueous (AE-IP) and hexane extraction, respectively. Solubility, WHC, OHC were found to be improved by hexane extraction. Based on DSC analysis, presence of black cumin oil in the concentrates enhanced the thermal stability of the proteins, while black cumin proteins demonstrated considerable surface activity at the air–water interface. Finally upon enyzmatic proteolysis, protein hydrolyzates demonstrated slight angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity. Based on the current findings, deoiled black cumin meals represent a viable source of biologically and technically functional proteins.


Cold press meals Protein concentrates Black cumin Protein functionality ACE-inhibition 



This study was funded by a grant from TÜBİTAK 3501 Programme (Grant No. 115O569). The authors would like to express their gratitude to Neva Foods Ltd. (İstanbul, Turkey) for the donation of deoiled meals. The analytical costs for 2D-electrophoresis were covered by direct support from İstanbul Sabahattin Zaim University (İZÜ). We would like to thank Prof. Murat Kasap from Kocaeli University DEKART Proteomics Laboratory, Turkey. Anton Paar, Turkey is also acknowledged for support in rheological analysis.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food Engineeringİstanbul Sabahattin Zaim University (İZÜ)İstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.İstanbul Sabahattin Zaim University (İZÜ), Halal Foods R&D CenterİstanbulTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of PharmacyInstitute of Health Sciences, Marmara UniversityİstanbulTurkey

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