Advertisement

Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization

, Volume 13, Issue 3, pp 2211–2217 | Cite as

Authentication of Citrus fruits through a comprehensive fatty acid profiling and health lipid indices: a nutraceutical perspectives

  • Myriam LamineEmail author
  • Mahmoud Gargouri
  • Fatma Zohra Rahali
  • Ahmed Mliki
Original Paper
  • 34 Downloads

Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate the fatty acid composition from the fruits of four Citrus species, as well as the determination of the nutritional quality of their lipid fraction. We identified fourteen fatty acids and a range of unique compounds, contributing to the discrimination of the studied species. Four fatty acids (palmitic, linoleic, stearic and lauric acids) were designated as “core fatty acids” and were common to the four species. Theses marker compounds could be used to determine the botanical origin and to authenticate the citrus fruit origin. Quantitatively, the species of choice would be C. limon, exhibiting the highest number of compounds (11 FAs), the highest total lipid amount (97.8%) and the highest content in term of PUFA (54.93%). On the other hand, considering the health-related lipid indices, lowest IA (0.23) and the lowest cox value (2.39), and their corresponding ratio, indicate the nutritional adequacy and the great quality for C. aurantium fruit pulp. In sum, the lowest values detected for these indexes indicated that generally citrus fruit pulps had beneficial effects on health and that citrus fruit oils are stable and they would be effective in protecting oils against oxidative deterioration.

Keywords

Citrus fruits Fatty acids Lipid fraction Health lipid indices Nutritional quality 

Notes

Acknowledgment

This work was supported by the Tunisian Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    AOAC, in Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, ed. by W. Horwitz (AOAC, Arlington, 1990)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    AOCS, Official Method Ce 1 h-05 Determination of cis-, trans-, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in vegetable or non-ruminant animal oils and fats by capillary GLC Official methods and recommended practices of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 5th edn. (American Oil Chemists’ Society, Boulder, 2005)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A.D. Assefa, R. Kumar Saini, Y.S. Keum, Fatty acids, tocopherols, phenolic and antioxidant properties of six citrus fruit species: a comparative study. Food Meas. 11, 1665–1675 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    E.J. Baker, E.A. Miles, G.C. Burdge, P. Yaqoob, P.C. Calder, Metabolism and functional effects of plant derived omega-3 fatty acids in humans. Prog. Lipid Res. 64, 30–56 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. Donetti, L. Terry, Biochemical markers defining growing area and ripening stage of imported avocado fruit cv. Hass. J. Food Compos. Anal. 34, 90–98 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    T.A. El-Adawy, E.H. Rahma, A.A. El-Bedawy, A.M. Gafar, Properties of some citrus seeds. Part 1. Physico-chemical characteristics of proteins. Nahrung Food 43, 374–378 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    FAO (2008). Fats and Fatty Acids in Human Nutrition. Report of an Expert Consultation; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Rome, Italy, 91, ISBN 978-9-25-106733-8Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    S.H. Fatemi, E.G. Hammond, Analysis of oleate, linoleate and linolenate hydroperoxyde in oxidized ester mixtures. Lipids 15, 379–385 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    R.A.A. Gazem, S.A. Chandrashekariah, Omega fatty acids in health and disease: a review. J. Pharm. Res. 8(8), 1027–1044 (2014)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    P. Górnàs, M. Rudziñska, Seeds recovered from industry by-products of nine fruit species with a high potential utility as a source of unconventional oil for biodiesel and cosmetic and pharmaceutical sectors. Ind. Crops Prod. 83, 329–338 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    H. Harbeoui, I. Bettaieb Rebey, I. Ouerghemmi, W. Aidi Wannes, H. Zemni, N. Zoghlami, N.A. Khan, R. Ksouri, M. Saidani Tounsi, Biochemical characterization and antioxidant activity of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed oils from nine Tunisian varieties. J. Food Biochem. 42(5), e12595 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M.J. Hinds, Fatty acid composition of Caribbean-grown peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) at three maturity stages. Food Chem. 53, 7–14 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. Lachman, A. Hejtmánková, J. Táborský, Z. Kotíková, V. Pivec, R. Střalková et al., Evaluation of oil content and fatty acid composition in the seed of grapevine varieties. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 63(1), 620–625 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. Lado, M.J. Rodrigo, L. Zacarías, Maturity indicators and citrus fruit quality. Stewart Postharvest Rev. 10(2), 1–6 (2014)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. Landahl, M.D. Meyer, L.A. Terry, Spatial and temporal analysis of textural and biochemical changes of imported avocado cv. Hass during fruit ripening. J. Agric. Food Chem. 57, 7039–7047 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Pieszka, W. Migdał, R. Gąsior, M. Rudzińska, D. Bederska-Łojewska, M. Pieszka et al., Native oils from apple, blackcurrant, raspberry, and strawberry seeds as a source of polyenoic fatty acids, tocochromanols, and phytosterols: a health implication. J. Chem. 2015, 659541 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. Reazai, I. Mohammadpourfard, S. Nazmara, M. Jahanbakhsh, L. Shiri, Physicochemical characteristics of citrus seed oils from Kerman, Iran. J. Lipids (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/174954 Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. Saïdani, W. Dhifi, B. Marzouk, Lipid evaluation of some Tunisian citrus seeds. J. Food Lipids 11, 242–250 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M.C. Sánchez-mata, M. Cámara, R. Morales, J. Tardío, Wild edible fruits as a potential source of phytochemicals with capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 4, 1–32 (2013)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    F. Takenaga, K. Matsuyama, S. Abe, Y. Torii, S. Itoh, Lipid and fatty acid composition of mesocarp and see of avocado fruits harvested at northern range in Japan. J. Oleo Sci. 57, 591–597 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    N. Tlili, T. Elguizani, N. Nasri, A. Khaldi, S. Triki, Protein, lipid, aliphatic and triterpenic alcohols content of caper seeds “Capparis spinosa”. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 88, 265–270 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. Tolonen, Vitamins and minerals in health and nutrition (Ellis Horwood Limited, Abington, 1990)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    H. Turan, G. Sönmez, Y. Kaya, Fatty acid profile and proximate composition of the thornback ray (Raja clavata L. 1758) from the Sinop coast in the Black Sea. J. Fish. Sci. 1, 97–103 (2007)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    T. Ulbricht, D. Southgate, Coronary heart disease: seven dietary factors. Lancet 338(8773), 985–992 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    M.F. Valim, N. Killiny, Occurrence of free fatty acids in the phloem sap of different citrus varieties. Plant Signal. Behav. (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1080/15592324.2017.1327497 Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    A. Wei, T. Shibamoto, Medicinal activities of essential oils: role in disease prevention, 1st edn. (Elsevier Inc., Amsterdam, 2010). ISBN 978-0-12-374628-3Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    C.C. Wei, P.L. Yen, S.T. Chang, P.L. Cheng, Y.C. Lo, V.H.C. Liao, Antioxidative activities of both oleic acid and Camellia tenuifolia seed oil are regulated by the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO in Caenorhabditis elegans. PLoS ONE 11, 1–15 (2016)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Plant Molecular PhysiologyBiotechnology Center of Borj-CedriaHammam-LifTunisia
  2. 2.Laboratory of Medicinal and Aromatic PlantsBiotechnology Center of Borj-CedriaHammam-LifTunisia

Personalised recommendations