Development and application of microwave-assisted extraction and advanced low density microextraction technique coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the successful determination of heterocyclic aromatic amines in barbecued meat sample and method optimization using response surface methodology
Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) produced during heat processing in meat samples are introduced as chemical toxicants with hazardous effect on human body. In this study, we applied an advanced, simple, efficient and sensitive analytical procedure based on microwave-assisted extraction and low density solvent/dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of four kinds of HAAs (2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)) in barbecued meat samples for the first time. The parameters affected on microextraction method including type and volume of extraction and disperser solvents, salt percent and PH were optimized using response surface design. The dynamic linear range was 1–1000 ng g−1. The coefficient of determination was higher than 0.982, relative standard deviations were between 3.7 and 8.1%. The recoveries in tree levels (10, 50 and 100 ng g−1) were obtained 89–101.5%. Detection limits were between 0.25 and 0.71 ng g−1. Offered technique is sensitive, selective‚ quick and precise. The most concentration of HAAs determined in barbecued meat samples was for IQ 1250 ng g−1 and the lowest amount is also related to IQ type 25 ng g−1. This proposed method presents proper concentration factors and detection limits for determination of HAAs in different barbecued meat samples.
Heterocyclic aromatic amines Barbecued meat Microwave-assisted extraction Low density solvent Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction High performance liquid chromatography Central composite design
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This study was conducted in laboratory of Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Nutrition Science, Food Science and Technology/National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Iran. We gratefully acknowledges for their assistance.
Dr. Mohammadi has received research grants from National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors declared that they have no conflict of interest.
Research involving human and animal participants
This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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1.Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Nutrition Science, Food Science and Technology/National Nutrition and Food Technology Research InstituteShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
2.Research Laboratory of Spectroscopy & Micro and Nano Extraction, Department of ChemistryIran University of Science and TechnologyTehranIran