Enhancing bio-recovery of bioactive compounds extracted from Citrus medica L. Var. sarcodactylis: optimization performance of integrated of pulsed-ultrasonic/microwave technique
This study mainly aimed to optimize a sustainable and green process for extracting bioactive compounds from Foshou fruit by using an integrated technique based on ultrasonic-microwave assisted extraction (UMAE). Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a Box–Behnken design was applied to determine optimal conditions. The following optimized UMAE processing parameters were obtained: sonication time (96.13 s), microwave power (305.28 W), and solid/solvent ratio (1:37). Based on a total phenolic compound extraction yield of 9.21 mg gallic acid (GA) equ/g dry weight (DW), a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 27.52 μg GA equ, and an antioxidant capacity detected by 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) assay of 8.79 mg trolox equ/g DW. The optimized UMAE extract was superior to those obtained using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) or conventional solvent extraction (CSE) methods. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed that the three extraction methods affected the sample tissue microstructure. Among them, UMAE caused the most marked structural disruption. UPLC-PDA-Q-TOF-MS analysis identified 67 phenolic compounds in the optimized UMAE extract of the Foshou fruit extract. This study indicated that the integrated UMAE technique is a suitable and safe technique to enhance the qualitative and quantitative extraction of phenolic compounds from Foshou fruit. These phenolic compounds can be used as a functional food ingredient in industrial production.
KeywordsCitrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis Swingle Ultrasonic/microwave-assisted extraction Response surface methodology Green extraction Antioxidant UPLC-PDA-Q-TOF-MS
This research was financially supported by the China Scholarship Council (CSC), Beijing, China and carried out in the Laboratory of the National Engineering Research Center for Functional Food at Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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