Response surface methodology for optimization of gluten-free bread made with unripe banana flour
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Gluten-free products have some texture drawbacks compared with gluten products. The texture of gluten-free products is improved with the addition of hydrocolloids and pregelatinized starches. The effects of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), pregelatinized unripe banana flour (UBF-P) and water on the quality of gluten-free bread were studied. A composite central design and response surface methodology were used. The volume, specific volume, weight, and hardness were analyzed, and image analysis of the crumb was performed. The results showed that the volume and specific volume increased with the addition of HPMC and UBF-P, while the hardness decreased. The addition of UBF-P and water increased the number and size of alveoli and affected the distribution of alveoli in crumbs. The distribution and size of the alveoli affected the physical characteristics and texture of the bread. Unripe banana flour can be used as an alternative ingredient to prepare gluten-free bread that has good quality characteristics.
KeywordsGluten-free Unripe banana flour Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose Crumb Bread Image analysis
The authors acknowledge the financial support granted by Secretaría de Investigación y Posgrado del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (SIP-IPN), del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (COFAA-IPN), Programa de Estímulos al Desempeño de los Investigadores del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (EDI-IPN) and Beca de Estímulo Institucional de Formación de Investigadores del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (BEIFI-IPN). MAHA is grateful for the scholarship granted by Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología de México (CONACyT-Mexico).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
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