Impact of solid state fermentation by Trichoderma spp. on phenolic content, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of curry leaf powder

  • Hala A. Salah
  • Roqaya I. Bassuiny
  • Mohamed I. El-Khonezy
  • Afaf S. Fahmy
  • Saleh A. MohamedEmail author
Original Paper


The aim of the present study is to evaluate the influence of solid state fermentation (SSF) by Trichoderma spp. on phenolic content, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of curry leaf powder. The phenolic contents of curry approximately increased 5–6 folds after SSF by T. verins, T. viride, T. reesei and T. harzianum. The major identified flavonoids analysis by HPLC increased several folds ranged from 2.5 to 8.1 in fermented curry than unfermented curry. The phenolic compounds of fermented curry had higher antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and phosphomolybdenum complex (PMC) assays compared with unfermented curry. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of fermented curry by Trichoderma spp. against Bacillus cereus (B.C.), Bacillus subtils (B.S.), Staphylococcus aureus (S.A.), Escherichia coli (E.C.), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.A.) and Klebsiella pneumonia (K.P.) were lower than those of unfermented curry. The time-killing curves of E.C., P.A., B.C., B.S. and K.P. in presence of phenolic compounds of curry fermented by T. harzianum were similar to Ampicillin as control. The results showed the strong correlation between the concentration of phenolic content of curry and antioxidant and antibacterial activities. In conclusion, the SSF upgraded the nutrient value of curry as spices which used widely in human foods.


Curry Trichoderma Solid state fermentation Antioxidant Antibacteria 



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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hala A. Salah
    • 1
  • Roqaya I. Bassuiny
    • 1
  • Mohamed I. El-Khonezy
    • 1
  • Afaf S. Fahmy
    • 1
  • Saleh A. Mohamed
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Molecular Biology DepartmentNational Research CentreCairoEgypt

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