Ultrasonic-assisted extraction of squalene and vitamin E based oil from Zizyphi Spinosae Semen and evaluation of its antioxidant activity
- 96 Downloads
Zizyphi Spinosae Semen (ZSS) is an herbal medicine with a variety of biological activities. In this study, the oil fraction of ZSS was extracted using an ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) method and the value of this underutilized byproduct was explored. The effects of operational parameters of the UAE process (extraction temperature, extraction time, liquid-to-solid ration, and ultrasonic power) on the extraction efficiency were evaluated based on the yield of vitamin E and the squalene, two important compounds in ZSS oil with antioxidant bioactivities. A central composite design was used to optimize these operational parameters. The optimized UAE process resulted in a vitamin E yield of 29.58 ± 0.19 mg/100 g ZSS and a squalene yield of 820.49 ± 3.66 µg/100 g ZSS, which were much higher than those obtained through the conventional heating reflux extraction (HRE) (i.e., vitamin E yield of 18.67 mg/100 g ZSS, and squalene yield of 627.25 µg/100 g ZSS). The ZSS oil contained oleic acid and linoleic acid as the main fatty acid. In addition, the UAE-derived ZSS oil exhibited stronger activities of scavenging ABTs, superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals, compared to the ZSS oil extracted from HRE. Collectively, this work demonstrated that UAE was an effective method to extract ZSS oil with high yield. The ZSS oil can be used as a potential an antioxidant agent in food and pharmaceutical industries.
KeywordsZizyphi Spinosae Semen Vitamin E Squalene Response surface method Anti-oxidant
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31101235; No. 31000749) and “131” first level innovative talents training project in Tianjin.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors have no financial or scientific conflict of interest with regard to the research described in this manuscript.
- 1.Y.F. Sun, Z.S. Liang, C.J. Shan, H. Viernstein, F. Unger, Comprehensive evaluation of natural antioxidants and antioxidant potentials in Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex H. F. Chou, fruits based on geographical origin by TOPSIS method. Food Chem. 124(4), 1612–1619 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 2.B. Yang, A.H. Zhang, H. Sun, W. Dong, G.L. Yan, T.L. Li, X.J. Wang, Metabolomic study of insomnia and intervention effects of Suanzaoren decoction using ultra-performance liquid-chromatography/electrospray-ionization synapt high-definition mass spectrometry. J. Pharm. Biomed. 58, 113–124 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 5.S.W. Lee, D.H. Kim, J.H. Yun, J.W. Kim, E.Y. Jung, S.G. Lee, K.S. Lee, T.H. Kim, Y.S. Lyu, H.W. Kang, The effects of antioxidant and anti-Alzheimer on hydrogen peroxide and β-amyloid peptid-induced PC 12 cells by Semen Ziziphi Spinosae water extract. Korean Soc. Orient. Neuropsychiatry 19(3), 179–194 (2008)Google Scholar
- 8.L. Perdomo, N. Beneit, Y.F. Otero, O. Escribano, S. Diaz-Castroverde, A. Gomez-Hernandez, M. Benito, Protective role of oleic acid against cardiovascular insulin resistance and in the early and late cellular atherosclerotic process. Cardiovasc. Diabetol. (2015). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12933-015-0237-9 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 9.G. Muzio, M. Miola, S. Ferraris, M. Maggiora, E. Bertone, M.P. Puccinelli, M. Ricci, E. Borroni, R.A. Canuto, E. Vern, A. Follenzi, Innovative superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles coated with silica and conjugated with linoleic acid: effect on tumor cell growth and viability. Mat. Sci. Eng. C-Mater. 76, 439–447 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 11.R. Barone, C. Sangiorgi, A.M. Gammazza, D. D’Amico, M. Salerno, F. Cappello, C. Pomara, G. Zummo, F. Farina, V. Di Felice, F. Macaluso, Effects of conjugated linoleic acid associated with endurance exercise on muscle fibres and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha isoforms. J. Cell. Physiol. 232(5), 1086–1094 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 17.L. De-bo, Study on preparation of Zanthoxylum bungeanum seed oil. China West Cereals Oils Technol. 24, 22–23 (1999)Google Scholar
- 19.N. Bayar, T. Bouallegue, M. Achour, M. Kriaa, A. Bougatef, R. Kammoun, Ultrasonic extraction of pectin from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes after mucilage removal: optimization of experimental conditions and evaluation of chemical and functional properties. Food Chem. 235, 275–282 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 25.J.D. Zhang, Y.Q. Wang, F. Qiu, L. Deng, B. Zhao, Research on determination of unsaponifiable matter in animal fats and vegetable oils. Cereals Oils 11, 33–35 (2011)Google Scholar
- 26.H.T. Lu, Y. Jiang, F. Chen, Determination of squalene using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. Chromatographia 59(5–6), 367–371 (2004)Google Scholar
- 32.A.A. Jovanovic, V.B. Dordevic, G.M. Zdunic, D.S. Pljevljakusic, K.P. Savikin, D.M. Godevac, B.M. Bugarski, Optimization of the extraction process of polyphenols from Thymus serpyllum, L. herb using maceration, heat- and ultrasound-assisted techniques. Sep. Purif. Technol. 179, 369–380 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 35.M. Parellada, C. Llorente, R. Calvo, S. Gutierrez, L. Lazaro, M. Graell, M. Guisasola, M.L. Dorado, L. Boada, J. Romo, E. Dulin, I. Sanz, C. Arango, C. Moreno, Randomized trial of omega-3 for autism spectrum disorders: effect on cell membrane composition and behavior. Eur. Neuropsychopharm. 27(12), 1319–1330 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 37.Y.H. Sun, R.L. Ma, S.J. Wang, G.Y. Li, Y.J. Sheng, H.Y. Rui, J. Zhang, J.C. Xu, D. Jiang, New cofactors and inhibitors for a DNA-cleaving DNAzyme: superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide mediated an oxidative cleavage process. Sci Rep-UK. (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-00329-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 38.C. Saporito-Magrina, R. Musacco-Sebio, J.M. Acosta, S. Bajicoff, P. Paredes-Fleitas, S. Reynoso, A. Boveris, M.G. Repetto, Copper(II) and iron(III) ions inhibit respiration and increase free-radical mediated phospholipid peroxidation in rat liver mitochondria: effect of antioxidants. J. Inorg. Biochem. 172, 94–99 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 40.X.J. LI, S.Y. Cui, DPPH radical scavenging mechanism of ascorbic acid. Food Sci. 32(1), 86–90 (2011)Google Scholar