Classification and treatment of orbital venous malformations: an updated review

  • Tianyuan Li
  • Renbing Jia
  • Xianqun FanEmail author


Orbital venous malformation (OVM) is a congenital vascular disease. As a common type of vascular malformation in the orbit, OVM may result in vision deterioration and cosmetic defect. Classification of orbital vascular malformations, especially OVMs, is carried out on the basis of different categories, such as angiogenesis, hemodynamics, and locations. Management of OVM is complicated and challenging. Treatment approaches include sclerotherapy, laser therapy, embolization, surgical resection, and radiotherapy. A satisfactory outcome can be achieved only by selecting the appropriate treatment according to lesion characteristics and following the sequential multi-method treatment strategy. This article summarizes the current classification and treatment advances in OVM.


orbit venous malformation treatment sclerotherapy laser embolization 


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© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai Ninth People’s HospitalShanghai Jiao Tong University School of MedicineShanghaiChina

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