Multivoxel pattern analysis of structural MRI in children and adolescents with conduct disorder
Conduct disorder (CD) is a psychiatric disorder in either childhood or adolescence and is characterized by aggressive and antisocial behavior. Although CD has been shown to be associated with structural abnormalities by structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), the classification ability of these structural abnormalities’ spatial patterns remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to characterize these different spatial patterns, which may eventually serve as potential reliable imaging biomarkers in the classification of CD from healthy controls (HCs). High-resolution 3D sMRI was acquired from 60 CD and 60 HCs, and all subjects were male participants. The mean (standard deviation) age was 15.3 (1.0) years old and 15.5 (0.7) years old for the CD and HC group respectively. Multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) with searchlight algorithm combined with support vector machine (SVM) was used to characterize the different spatial patterns in grey matter (GM) and to assess the classification ability of such structural difference. Seven cortical and subcortical regions showed significant GM difference between CD and HCs, including the cerebellum posterior lobe, temporal lobe, parahippocampal gyrus, lingual gyrus, insula, parietal lobe and medial frontal gyrus. GM in these brain regions discriminated CD with accuracy of up to 83%. Multiple brain regions exhibited aberrantly different spatial patterns in CD. The spatial patterns might be objective and reliable imaging features that could help to improve the classification of CD.
KeywordsConduct disorder sMRI Multivoxel pattern analysis Support vector machine Classification
The study was funded by the Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81471384) and the Seed Funding from Scientific and Technical Innovation Council of Shenzhen Government (No. 000048).
Compliance with ethical standards
None of the authors has any conflicts of interest to disclosure. We confirm that we have read the Journal’s position on issues involved in ethical publication and affirm that this report is consistent with those guidelines.
- Dalwani, M., Sakai, J. T., Mikulich-Gilbertson, S. K., Tanabe, J., Raymond, K., McWilliams, S. K., Thompson, L. L., Banich, M. T., & Crowley, T. J. (2011). Reduced cortical gray matter volume in male adolescents with substance and conduct problems [J]. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 118(2–3), 295–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dalwani, M. S., McMahon, M. A., Mikulich-Gilbertson, S. K., Young, S. E., Regner, M. F., Raymond, K. M., McWilliams, S. K., Banich, M. T., Tanabe, J. L., Crowley, T. J., & Sakai, J. T. (2015). Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems have substantially less brain gray matter volume [J]. PLoS One, 10(5), e0126368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fairchild, G., Passamonti, L., Hurford, G., Hagan, C. C., von dem Hagen, E. A. H., van Goozen, S. H. M., Goodyer, I. M., & Calder, A. J. (2011). Brain structure abnormalities in early-onset and adolescent-onset conduct disorder [J]. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 168(6), 624–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Klapwijk, E. T., Lelieveld, G. J., Aghajani, M., Boon, A. E., van der Wee, N. J. A., Popma, A., Vermeiren, R. R. J. M., & Colins, O. F. (2016). Fairness decisions in response to emotions: A functional MRI study among criminal justice-involved boys with conduct disorder [J]. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 11(4), 674–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Liu, F., Guo, W., Yu, D., Gao, Q., Gao, K., Xue, Z., du, H., Zhang, J., Tan, C., Liu, Z., Zhao, J., & Chen, H. (2012). Classification of different therapeutic responses of major depressive disorder with multivariate pattern analysis method based on structural MR scans [J]. PLoS One, 7(7), e40968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mohanty, A., et al. (2008). The Spatial Attention Network Interacts with Limbic and Monoaminergic Systems to Modulate Motivation-Induced Attention Shifts [J]. Cerebral Cortex (New York, NY), 18(11), 2604–2613.Google Scholar
- Raine A, The psychopathology of crime: Criminal behavior as a clinical disorder [M]. Elsevier 2013.Google Scholar
- Rubia, K., et al. (2009). Disorder-specific dissociation of orbitofrontal dysfunction in boys with pure conduct disorder during reward and ventrolateral prefrontal dysfunction in boys with pure ADHD during sustained attention [J]. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 166(1), 83–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sasayama, D., Hayashida, A., Yamasue, H., Harada, Y., Kaneko, T., Kasai, K., Washizuka, S., & Amano, N. (2010). Neuroanatomical correlates of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder accounting for comorbid oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder [J]. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 64(4), 394–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yao, S., Yang, H., Zhu, X., Auerbach, R. P., Abela, J. R. Z., Pulleyblank, R. W., & Tong, X. (2007). An examination of the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Barratt impulsiveness scale, 11th version in a sample of Chinese adolescents [J]. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 104(3 Pt 2), 1169–1182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhang, J., et al. (2018). Distinguishing Adolescents With Conduct Disorder From Typically Developing Youngsters Based on Pattern Classification of Brain Structural MRI [J]. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 12(152).Google Scholar