Altered functional connectivity patterns of insular subregions in major depressive disorder after electroconvulsive therapy
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Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an efficient treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD), however, it also brings memory impairment. The insula is a critical brain structure for coordinating affective, cognitive memory, saliency processing, and attention switching suggesting functional activity of insula maybe an important indicator to delineate the treatment and side effects of ECT. Here, Resting-state functional connectivity analyses of insular subregions were performed to reveal the changes of connectivity in 23 MDD patients before and after ECT and 25 healthy control (HC) and identified significantly increased functional connectivity of the right ventral anterior insular subregion with bilateral caudate, angular gyrus, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex after ECT. Granger causality analyses identified significantly increased effective connectivity from dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to right angular gyrus in MDD patients after ECT. Furthermore, increased effective connectivity from dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to right angular gyrus exhibited significantly positive correlation with changed Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression scores. These results showed that ECT can normalize abnormal functional connectivity and effective connectivity in MDD. Our findings also indicated that the right ventral anterior insula and effective connectivity from dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to right angular gyrus are biomarkers of antidepressant effects during ECT of MDD.
KeywordsECT MDD Insular subregions Resting-state Granger causality analyses
This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (31500867, 81601187, 81671354, and 81471117), the National Basic Research Program of China (973 program, 2015CB856400).
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