Influence of high-temperature convective flow on viability of Scots pine needles (Pinus sylvestris L.)

  • I. G. GetteEmail author
  • N. V. Pakharkova
  • I. V. Kosov
  • I. N. Bezkorovaynaya
Original Paper


During a forest fire, plants are affected by high temperatures causing stress. At the time of burning, it is difficult to record temperature changes in tree crowns and the associated effects on photosynthesis. This paper presents the results of modelling a high-temperature effect simulating a convective flow from a ground fire. Evaluation of the response was carried out by the parameters of rapid fluorescence (Fv/Fm, ETR), the state of the pigment complex, and the relative water content in the needles. To characterize the degree of heat endurance and short-term effects concerning thermal damage, saplings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were used at different times during the growing season (June, July, August, September). Experimental heating at 55 °C lasted for 5 and 10 min. There were different levels of heat resistance by the needles. Data in June show that heating of the saplings significantly suppressed photosynthesis. In July, August, and September, the photochemical quantum yield (Fv/Fm) was restored to 75% and 60% from the initial level after 5- and 10-min heating, respectively. The electron transport rate (ETR) for saplings in September was restored to their initial level within 3 days after a short heat exposure. Restoration of the photosynthetic activity in needles was observed after a 5-min impact, but by the end of the study period, restoration had not reached control values. A longer heating of 10 min resulted in an irreversible suppression of photosynthesis and destruction of the photosynthetic apparatus, as evidenced by the decrease in the number of photosynthetic pigments.


Pinus sylvestris Heat stress Chlorophyll Fluorescence Forest fires 



  1. Akburak S, Son Y, Ender M, Cakir M (2018) Impacts of low-intensity prescribed fire on microbial and chemical soil properties in a Quercus frainetto forest. J For Res 29(3):687–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashraf M, Harris PJC (2013) Photosynthesis under stressful environments: an overview. Photosynthetica 51(2):163–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bailey AW, Anderson ML (1980) Fire temperatures in forest communities grass, shrub and aspen of central Alberta. J Range Manag 33(1):37–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Battaglia M, Smith FW, Shepperd WD (2009) Predicting mortality of ponderosa pine regeneration after prescribed fire in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA. Int J Wildland Fire 18(2):176–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bazhenova OI (2006) The landscape-climatic types of exogenous relief-formation systems in sub-arid areas of southern Siberia. Geogr Nat Resour 4:57–65 (in Russian) Google Scholar
  6. Björkman O, Demmig B (1987) Photon yield of O2 evolution and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics at 77 K among vascular plants of diverse origins. Planta 170:489–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boerner REJ, Huang JJ, Hart SC (2009) Impacts of fire and fire surrogate treatments on forest soil properties: a meta-analytical approach. Ecol Appl 19(2):338–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bogorodskaya AV, Krasnoshchekova EN, Bezkorovainaya IN, Ivanova GA (2010) Post-fire transformation of microbial communities and invertebrate complexes in the pine forest soils, Central Siberia. Contemp Probl Ecol 3(6):653–659 (in Russian) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bond WJ, Van Wilgen BW (1996) Fire and plants (population and community biology series 14). Population and community biology. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. Brando PM, Nepstad DC, Balch JK, Bolker B, Christman MC, Coe M, Putz FE (2012) Fire-induced tree mortality in a neotropical forest: the roles of bark traits, tree size, wood density and fire behavior. Glob Change Biol 18:630–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Briantais JM, Dacosta J, Goulas Y, Ducruet JM, Moya I (1996) Heat stress induces in leaves an increase of the minimum level of chlorophyll fluorescence, F0—a time-resolved analysis. Photosynth Res 48:189–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bugaeva KS (2009) Typological structure of forests (Pogorel’skii Bor, Krasnoyarsk Forest-Steppe). Russ J For Sci 6:46–53 (in Russian) Google Scholar
  13. Catrya FX, Regoa F, Moreiraa F, Fernandesb PM, Pausasc JG (2010) Post-fire tree mortality in mixed forests of central Portugal. For Ecol Manag 260:1184–1192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Certini G (2005) Effects of fire on properties of forest soils: a review. Oecologia 143:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chaerle L, Van Der Straeten D (2000) Imaging techniques and the early detection of plant stress. Trends Plant Sci 5:495–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cornic G (1994) Drought stress and high light effects on leaf photosynthesis. In: Baker NR (ed) Photoinhibition of photosynthesis: from molecular mechanisms to the field. Bios Scientific Publishers, Oxford, pp 297–313Google Scholar
  17. Dayamba SD, Savadogo P, Zida D, Sawadogo L, Tiveau D, Oden PC (2010) Fire temperature and residence time during dry season burning in a Sudanian savanna-woodland of West Africa with implication for seed germination. J For Res 21(4):445–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dickinson M, Jolliff J, Bova A (2005) Vascular cambium necrosis in forest fires: using hyperbolic temperature regimes to estimate parameters of a tissue-response model. Aust J Bot 52:757–763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fleck I, Grau MD, Sanjose DV (1996) Influence of fire and tree-fell on physiological parameters in Quercus ilex resprouts. Ann For Sci 53(2–3):337–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ganji AF, Jabbari R, Morshed A (2012) Evaluation of drought stress on relative water content, chlorophyll content and mineral elements of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties international. Int J Agric Crop Sci 4(11):726–729Google Scholar
  21. Gavrilenko VF, Zhigalova TV (2003) Large workshop in photosynthesis. Academy, Moscow (in Russian) Google Scholar
  22. Genty B, Briantais J, Baker NR (1989) The relationship between the quantum yield of photosynthetic electron transport and quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence. Biochem Biophys Acta 990:87–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Genty B, Wonders J, Baker NR (1990) Non-photochemical quenching of Fo in leaves is emission wavelength dependent-consequences for quenching analysis and its interpretation. Photosynth Res 26:133–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gette IG, Pakharkova NV, Kosov IV, Bezkorovaynaya IN (2017) Fluorescence methods for estimation of post-fire response of pine needles. Folia For Pol Ser A For 59(4):249–257 (in Russian) Google Scholar
  25. Girs GI (1982) Physiology weakened tree. Nauka, Novosibirsk (in Russian) Google Scholar
  26. Goltsev V, Zaharieva I, Chernev P, Kouzmanova M, Kalaji HM, Yordanov I, Krasteva V, Alexandrov V, Stefanov D, Allakhverdiev SI, Strasser RJ (2012) Drought-induced modifications of photosynthetic electron transport in intact leaves: analysis and use of neural networks as a tool for a rapid non-invasive estimation. Biochem Biophys Acta 1817(8):1490–1498Google Scholar
  27. Goltsev VN, Kalaji MH, Kouzmanova MA, Allakhverdiev SI (2014) Variable and delayed chlorophyll a fluorescence—basics and application in plant sciences. Institute of Computer Sciences, Moscow-IzshevskGoogle Scholar
  28. Grigoriev YS, Andreev DN (2012) About the technique of registration of the chlorophyll delayed fluorescence at bioindication of the air pollution on coniferous. Nat Sci 2:36–39 (in Russian) Google Scholar
  29. Guidi L, Degl’Innocenti E (2011) Imaging of chlorophyll a fluorescence: a tool to study abiotic stress in plants, abiotic stress in plants-mechanisms and adaptations, Prof. ArunShanker (ed) InTech.
  30. Gulen H, Eris A (2003) Some physiological changes in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa «Camarosa») plants under heat stress. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 78(6):894–898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Guo JF, Chen GS, Xie JS, Yang ZJ, Yang YS (2015) Effect of heat-disturbance on microbial biomass carbon and microbial respiration in Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolate) forest soils. J For Res 26(4):933–939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ivanova GA, Conard SG, McRae DD (2014) The impact of fire on components of the ecosystem of middle of pine forests of Siberia. Nauka, Novosibirsk (in Russian)Google Scholar
  33. Klimov SV (2008) Plant adaptation to stress through changes in source–sink relations at different levels of plant hierarchy. Biol Bull Rev 128(3):281–299Google Scholar
  34. Kreslavski VD, Carpentier R, Klimov VV, Murata N, Allakhverdiev SI (2007) Molecular mechanisms of stress resistance of photosynthetic apparatus. Membr Cell Biol 24(3):195–217Google Scholar
  35. Lichtenthaler HK, Ac A, Marek MV, Kalina J, Urban O (2007) Differences in pigment composition, photosynthetic rates and chlorophyll fluorescence images of sun and shade leaves of four tree species. Plant Physiol Biochem 45(8):577–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mataix-Solera J, Cerdā A, Arcenegui V, Jordan A, Zavala LM (2011) Fire effects on soil aggregation: a review. Earth Sci Rev 109(1–2):44–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Maxwell K, Johnson GN (2000) Chlorophyll fluorescence—a practical guide. J Exp Bot 51:659–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mell WE, Manzello SL, Maranghides A (2006) Numerical modeling of fire spread through trees and shrubs. In: Viegas DX (ed) Proceedings of 5th international conference on forest fire research (CD-ROM). Figueira da Foz, PortugalGoogle Scholar
  39. Michaletz ST (2018) Xylem dysfunction in fires: towards a hydraulic theory of plant responses to multiple disturbance stressors. New Phytol 217:1391–1393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Michaletz ST, Johnson EA (2007) How forest fires kill trees: a review of the fundamental biophysical processes. Scand J For Res 22:500–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Muraoka H, Tang Y, Koizumi H, Washitani I (1997) Combined effects of light and water availability on photosynthesis and growth of Arisaema heterophyllum in the forest understory and an open site. Oecologia 112:26–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Murchie EH, Lawson T (2013) Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis: a guide to good practice and understanding some new applications. J Exp Bot 64(13):3983–3998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Neary DG, Klopatek CC, DeBano LF, Ffolliott PF (1999) Fire effects on belowground sustainability: a review and synthesis. For Ecol Manag 122:57–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Renninger HJ, Clark KL, Skowronski N, Schäfer KVR (2013) Effects of a prescribed fire on water use and photosynthetic capacity of pitch pines. Trees 27:1115–1127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Repin EN (2018) Peculiarities of the water mode of khabarovskclima types of Pinus koraiensis (Siebold & Zucc.) in geographic cultures. Successes Mod Nat Sci 10:68–72 (in Russian) Google Scholar
  46. Schonfeld MA, Johnson RC, Carver BF, Mornhinweg DW (1988) Water relations in winter wheat as drought resistance indicator. Crop Sci 28:526–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Senkina SN (2002) Moisture in the production process of plants. Bull Inst Biol 11:2–5 (in Russian) Google Scholar
  48. Smits KM, Kirby E, Massman WJ, Baggett LS (2016) Experimental and modeling study of forest fire effect on soil thermal conductivity. Pedosphere 26(4):462–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sofronova VE, Maximov TC, Korotaeva NE, Suvorova GG, Oskorbina MV, Borovskii GB (2012) Accumulation of heat shock proteins and dehydrins in the needles of Scots pine at the early stage of the PSII photoinhibition during the autumn adaptation of plants to winter conditions. Dokl Biol Sci 443(1):113–116 (in Russian) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sparks AM, Kolden CA, Talhelm AF, Smith AMS, Apostol KG, Johnson DM, Boschetti L (2016) Spectral indices accurately quantify changes in seedling physiology following fire: towards mechanistic assessments of PostFire Carbon Cycling. Remote Sens 8:572–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sudachkova NE, Romanova LI, Astrakhantseva NV, Novoselova MV, Kosov IV (2016) Stress reactions of scots pine trees to injuring by ground fire. Contemp Probl Ecol 5:739–749 (in Russian) Google Scholar
  52. Swezy DM, Agee JK (1991) Prescribed-fire effects on fine root and tree mortality in old-growth ponderosa pine. Can J For Res 21:626–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Thompson MTC, Koyama A, Kavanagh KL (2017) Wildfire effects on physiological properties in conifers of central Idaho forests, USA. Trees 31:545–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Valendik EN, Sukhinin AI, Kosov IV (2006) Influence of surface fires on the stability of coniferous species. VN Sukachev SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk (in Russian) Google Scholar
  55. Varner JM, Putz FE, O’Brien JJ, Hiers JK, Mitchell RJ, Gordon DR (2009) Post-fire tree stress and growth following smoldering duff fires. For Ecol Manag 258:2467–2474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Verkhovets SV (2000) Influence of controlled burning on fire hazard and reforestation on clearcuts. Ph.D. thesis, Krasnoyarsk (in Russian)Google Scholar
  57. Wahid A, Close TJ (2007) Expression of dehydrins under heat stress and their relationship with water relations of sugarcane leaves. Biol Plant 51(1):104–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Walter J, Jentsch A, Beierkuhnlein C, Kreyling J (2013) Ecological stress memory and cross stress tolerance in plants in the face of climate extremes. Environ Exp Bot 94:3–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Yadegarnejad SA, Jafarabad MD, Savadkoohi NM (2015) Surface wildfire in conifer broad-leaved forests of the Hyrcanian region of Iran: short-term effect on regeneration and damage to trees. J For Res 26(2):425–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Yordanov I, Stefanov D, Krasteva V, Gourmanova M, Goltsev V (2012) Drought stress responses in plants—molecular biology, physiology and agronomical aspects. J Agric Sci 4(8):7–20Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Northeast Forestry University 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. G. Gette
    • 1
    Email author
  • N. V. Pakharkova
    • 1
  • I. V. Kosov
    • 2
  • I. N. Bezkorovaynaya
    • 1
  1. 1.Siberian Federal UniversityKrasnoyarskRussia
  2. 2.Sukachev Institute of Forest SB RASFederal Research Center “Krasnoyarsk Science Center of SB RAS”KrasnoyarskRussia

Personalised recommendations