Effects of sodium nitroprusside on callus browning of Ficus religiosa: an important medicinal plant

  • Mohsen HesamiEmail author
  • Masoud Tohidfar
  • Milad Alizadeh
  • Mohammad Hosein Daneshvar
Original Paper


Tissue browning is a major problem in tissue culturing of woody plants, especially for Ficus religiosa which occurs by the accumulation and oxidation of phenolic compounds. This study aimed to determine the effect of different concentrations of sodium nitroprusside on the appearance of callus browning from leaf explants. The results indicate that callus browning was significantly reduced by supplementation of sodium nitroprusside to the MS medium and supplemented with 2.26 μM of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 0.22 μM of 6-benzyl amino purine. The accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and phenolic compounds in the callus tissues decreased at the 50 μM concentration of sodium nitroprusside. Although catalase and peroxidase activities decreased at the 50 μM concentration, the activity of superoxide dismutase and polyphenol oxidases, as well as proline content, increased exponentially. Sodium nitroprusside could be useful for the formation of non-embryogenic callus with high levels of metabolic activity for the production and isolation of secondary metabolites.


Nitric oxide Oxidative enzymes Proline Reactive oxygen species 


Authors’ contribution

All authors listed have made substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and have approved it for publication.


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Copyright information

© Northeast Forestry University 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohsen Hesami
    • 1
    Email author
  • Masoud Tohidfar
    • 2
  • Milad Alizadeh
    • 2
  • Mohammad Hosein Daneshvar
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of TehranKarajIran
  2. 2.Department of Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Science and BiotechnologyShahid Beheshti UniversityTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of AgricultureKhuzestan Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources UniversityMollasaniIran

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