Journal of Forestry Research

, Volume 30, Issue 5, pp 1849–1857 | Cite as

Natural regeneration of Pinus brutia Ten. in a recreational public forest in Zawita-Kurdistan region, Iraq

  • Hassan MuhamedEmail author
  • Sami Youssef
  • Ahmed Mustafa
  • Hishyer Suliman
  • Aree Abdulqader
  • Hishyer Mohammed
  • Richard Michalet
Original Paper


Zawita natural forest has recently has been subject to mass recreational activities during spring that have denuded large areas of the forest. It was thus essential to assess regeneration before designing optimizing strategies. To this end, we studied the overstory canopy and microhabitat conditions for recruitment of Pinus brutia Ten in 10 plots (20 × 25 m) on the southern aspects where the Zawita natural forest is still present. In total, 1540 regenerating P. brutia were recorded, 854 seedlings, 597 saplings, and 89 trees. Seedlings and saplings were more frequent beyond the canopy than under the canopy of the parent trees. Regeneration requirements differed between seedlings and saplings. The probability of the occurrence of seedlings was negatively correlated with increasing litter depth and increasing soil compaction. The density of saplings only showed a positive significant correlation with increasing slope. The nearest neighbor index showed a trend toward a positive spatial association between understory shrubs with their neighboring seedlings at a mean distance of 1.6 m. Overall, the study highlighted the requirements for seedling regeneration as a relatively open canopy cover, a light understory litter layer, and non-compacted soils. These results are a step towards designing effective management and restoration programs.


Forest structure Litter depth Regeneration niche Spatial pattern Soil compaction 



We thank the Directorate of the Forestry and Rangelands of Duhok for permission to work in Zawita forest and for their assistance in the field.

Supplementary material

11676_2018_739_MOESM1_ESM.docx (243 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 242 kb)


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Copyright information

© Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hassan Muhamed
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sami Youssef
    • 2
  • Ahmed Mustafa
    • 3
  • Hishyer Suliman
    • 1
  • Aree Abdulqader
    • 1
  • Hishyer Mohammed
    • 4
  • Richard Michalet
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Forestry, College of AgricultureUniversity of DuhokDuhokIraq
  2. 2.AMAP (Botany and Modelling of Plant Architecture and Vegetation)University of MontpellierMontpellier Cedex 5France
  3. 3.Department of Ecotourism, College of AgricultureUniversity of DuhokDuhokIraq
  4. 4.Directorate of Forestry and RangelandsDuhokIraq
  5. 5.UMR CNRS 5805 EPOCUniversité de BordeauxPessac CedexFrance

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