Journal of Forestry Research

, Volume 30, Issue 1, pp 295–303 | Cite as

Spatial correlation of pit and mound topography with canopy gaps in a virgin mixed beech forest, northern Iran

  • Hashem HabashiEmail author
Original Paper


In a reserved forest parcel in a virgin eastern Hyrcanian mixed beech forest, 80 ha was surveyed to determine the pit and mound topography, canopy gaps and dead trees. The aim was to investigate the spatial patterns and correlation of pit and mound features with canopy gaps. Seventy-five canopy gaps and 61 pit and mound features were identified. The univariate first order nearest neighbor (RCE) and bivariate second order test (Ripley’s K) statistic were applied. RCE statistics highlighted a general aggregation pattern for canopy gaps and pits and mounds, while pits and mounds alone were more clumped. Distances between canopy gaps were 130 m average, whereas distances between pit and mound features and dead trees were 60 and 78 m, respectively. Spatial positive correlation of canopy gaps with pits and mounds were observed with all distances. The result of spatial correlations between canopy gaps with pits and mounds confirmed that windthrows cause micro successions in fallen tree ecosystem-scale correlated with gap phase dynamics in the forest community-scale.


Pit and mound Canopy gap Mixed beech Spatial pattern Spatial correlation 



This paper is made possible through the help of Dr. Kooch and Ph.D. student Mrs. Moghimian for her efforts at the M.Sc. level. This project would have been impossible without the support of GAUSNR (Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources) grant. Also, I would like to thanks Dr. Ron Ayling and Dr. Chai for editing my paper.


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Copyright information

© Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Forest SciencesGorgon University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural ResourcesGorganIran

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