Emamectin benzoate 9.7% SL as a new formulation for a trunk-injections against pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus
In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of emamectin benzoate 9.7% SL, which was newly developed to reduce the injection volume and number of injection holes required to protect against pine wood nematode. None of the Pinus thunbergii trees injected with emamectin benzoate 9.7% SL at 0.3 mL/cm diameter at breast height (DBH) died within 2 years of inoculation with pine wood nematodes. Emamectin benzoate 9.7% SL injected at 0.6 mL/cm DBH resulted in no tree mortality for 3 years. Mean residue of emamectin benzoate 9.7% SL in pine twigs injected with 0.3 mL/cm DBH was 0.490 μg/g at 1 year after injection and 0.303 μg/g after 2 years. These residues values are greater than 0.031 μg/g, previously determined IC95 value for emamectin benzoate against the pine wood nematode. Our field experiment and residue analysis showed that emamectin benzoate 9.7% SL could be a substitute agent for emamectin benzoate 2.15% EC, which is widely used to prevent pine wood nematode in the field and that injection volume and number of injection holes can be greatly educed using this new formulation, which will reduce injury to the cambium, interruption of water movement, and infection of inoculation wounds by wood-decay or blue stain fungi.
KeywordsEmamectin benzoate 9.7% SL Emamectin benzoate 2.15% EC Trunk injection Pine wood nematode Residue
This work was supported by a grant from Syngenta Korea to IK Park, entitled “Control and prevention effect of emamectin benzoate 9.7% SL against sycamore lace bug (Corythucha ciliata) and pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus)”.
- Chawla ML, Prasad SK (1975) Techniques in nematology. II. Comparative efficiency of sampling tools and nematode extraction methods. Indian J Nematol 4:115–123Google Scholar
- Choi YE, Moon YS (1989) Survey on distribution of pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) and its pathogenicity to pine trees in Korea. J Plant Pathol 5:277–286Google Scholar
- Lee SM, Kim DS, Lee SG, Park NC, Lee DW (2009a) Selection of trunk injection pesticides for preventive of pine wilt disease, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus on Japanese black pine (Pinus thunbergii). Korean J Pestic Sci 13:267–274Google Scholar
- Lee SM, Kim DS, Kim CS, Cho KS, Choo HY, Lee DW (2009b) Persistence and distribution of trunk-injected abamectin in Pinus thunbergii and Pinus koraiensis tissues. Korean J Pestic Sci 13:190–196Google Scholar