Journal of Forestry Research

, Volume 30, Issue 1, pp 193–203 | Cite as

Genetic diversity and association analyses of fruit traits with microsatellite ISSRs in Sapindus

  • Caowen Sun
  • Liming JiaEmail author
  • Benye Xi
  • Jiming Liu
  • Lianchun Wang
  • Xuehuang Weng
Original Paper


Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. and S. delavayi Franchet are among the most valuable species in the genus Sapindus for their commercially exploitable plant oils and chemicals. However, few studies have addressed genetic variation and improvement for either species. We evaluated the genetic diversity of germplasm from selected plus trees within a wide region and established the relationship between fruit traits and molecular markers. An association analysis based on inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) provided a genetic basis for studies of fruit traits. A total of 247 loci were detected by scanning 61 trees of S. mukorossi and S. delavayi using 16 ISSR markers. Genetic diversity parameters were estimated for selected superior trees (or germplasm) and S. mukorossi and S. delavayi were categorized into two main groups, as well as into four groups within S. mukorossi. An association analysis between the ISSR markers and 14 fruit traits used the TASSEL MLM model. A genetic structure analysis differentiated S. mukorossi and S. delavayi. Eighteen ISSR loci associated with 13 fruit traits (P < 0.005) were identified, with 13, 1, and 4 loci associated with seed oil production, fruit saponin production, and fruit quality, respectively. Using this information, a core collection was selected with adequate genetic diversity and good seed oil characters. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of effectively estimating fruit trait associations in Sapindus using ISSR markers, and the method is applicable and valuable for select germplasm conservation. The markers obtained in this study are potentially useful for molecular-assisted breeding of Sapindus spp.


Inter-simple sequence repeats Sapindus Fruit traits Association analysis Genetic diversity 


  1. Abdollah KK (2014) Regression association analysis of fruit traits with molecular markers in cherries. Plant Syst Evol 300:1163–1173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bhattacharyya P, Kumaria S, Tandon P (2015) Applicability of ISSR and DAMD markers for phyto-molecular characterization and association with some important biochemical traits of Dendrobium nobile, an endangered medicinal orchid. Phytochemistry 117:306–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cardon LR, Palmer JL (2003) Population stratification and spurious allelic association. Lancet 361:598–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chakraborty M, Baruah DC (2013) Production and characterization of biodiesel obtained from Sapindus mukorossi kernel oil. Energy 60:159–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen YH, Chiang TH, Chen JH (2013) Properties of soapnut (Sapindus mukorossi) oil biodiesel and its blends with diesel. Biomass Bioenergy 52:15–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Diao S, Shao W, Jiang J, Dong R, Sun H (2014) Phenotypic diversity in natural populations of Sapindus mukorossi based on fruit and seed traits. Acta Ecol Sin 34(6):1451–1460Google Scholar
  7. Diao S, Shao W, Chen T, Jiang J, Duan W (2016) Genetic diversity of Sapindus mukorossi natural populations in China based on ISSR. For Res 29(2):176–182Google Scholar
  8. Evanno G, Regnaut S, Goudet J (2005) Detecting the number of clusters of individuals using the software STRUCTURE: a simulation study. Mol Ecol 14(8):2611–2620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ganopoulos IV, Kazantzis K, Chatzicharisis I, Karayiannis I, Tsaftaris AS (2011) Genetic diversity, structure and fruit trait associations in Greek sweet cherry cultivars using microsatellite based (SSR/ISSR) and morpho-physiological markers. Euphytica 181:237–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ghebretinsaea AG, Grahamb SA, Camiloa GR, Barber JC (2008) Natural infraspecific variation in fatty acid composition of Cuphea (Lythraceae) seed oils. Ind Crop Prod 27:279–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Han DM, Wu Z, Yang W, Shuai L, Li JG, Pan XW, Guo DL (2015) Evaluation system established for the quality of ripened longan fruit based on physicochemical indices. J Plant Genet Resour 16(3):503–511Google Scholar
  12. Huang S, Wang J, Du M, Zhang J, Jiang J (2009) Fatty acid composition analysis of Sapindus mukorossi Gaerth. seed oil. China Oils Fats 34(12):74–76Google Scholar
  13. Ipek M, Seker M, Ipek A, Gul MK (2015) Identification of molecular markers associated with fruit traits in olive and assessment of olive core collection with AFLP markers and fruit traits. Genet Mol Res 14(1):2762–2774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jia L, Sun C (2012) Research progress of biodiesel tree Sapindus mukorossi. J China Agric Univ 17(6):191–196Google Scholar
  15. Jugran A, Rawat S, Dauthal P, Mondal S, Bhatt ID, Rawal RS (2013) Association of ISSR markers with some biochemical traits of Valeriana jatamansi Jones. Ind Crop Prod 44:671–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jugran AK, Bhatt ID, Rawal RS (2015) Identification of ISSR markers associated with valerenic acid content and antioxidant activity in Valeriana jatamansi Jones in the West Himalaya. Mol Breed 35:73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lai G, Lai Z, Liu W, Ye W, Yl Lin, Liu S, Chen Y, Zhang Z, Wu G (2014) ISSR analysis of 3 natural populations of the wild banana distributed in the middle of Fujian province based on NTSYS and STRUCTURE. Chin J Trop Crops 35(2):223–231Google Scholar
  18. Latif AM, Rahman MM, Ali ME, Ashkani S, Rafii MY (2013) Inheritance studies of SSR and ISSR molecular markers and phylogenetic relationship of rice genotypes resistant to tungro virus. Biologies 336:125–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Li R, Wang C, Dai S, Luo X, Li B, Zhu J, Lu J, Liu Q (2012) The association analysis of phenotypic traits with SRAP markers in Chrysanthemum. Sci Agric Sin 45(7):1355–1364Google Scholar
  20. Lovato L, Pelegrini BL, Rodrigues J, de Oliveira AJB, Ferreira ICP (2014) Seed oil of Sapindus saponaria L. (Sapindaceae) as potential C16 to C22 fatty acids resource. Biomass Bioenergy 60:247–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mahar KS, Rana TS, Ranade SA, Meena B (2011a) Genetic variability and population structure in Sapindus emarginatus Vahl from India. Gene 485:32–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mahar KS, Rana TS, Ranade SA (2011b) Molecular analyses of genetic variability in soap nut (Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn.). Ind Crop Prod 34:1111–1118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mahar KS, Meena B, Rana TS, Ranade SA (2012) ISSR analysis of soap nut (Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn.) genotypes in Western Himalaya (India). Plant Biosyst 146(3):614–621Google Scholar
  24. Mahar KS, Rana TS, Ranade SA, Meena B, Pande V, Palni SLM (2013) Estimation of genetic variability and population structure in Sapindus trifoliatus L., using DNA fingerprinting methods. Trees 27:85–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nei M (1973) Analysis of gene diversity in subdivided populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 70:3321–3323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ruby JL (1967) The correspondence between genetic, morphological, and climatic variation patterns in scotch pine. Silvae Genet 16(2):50–56Google Scholar
  27. Sestili S, Giardini A, Ficcadenti N (2011) Genetic diversity among Italian melon inodorus (Cucumis melo L.) germplasm revealed by ISSR analysis and agronomic traits. Plant Genet Resour 9(2):214–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Shannon CE, Weaver W (1949) The mathematical theory of communication. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, pp 2–34Google Scholar
  29. Stich B, Melchinger AE (2009) Comparison of mixedmodel approaches for association mapping in rapeseed, potato, sugar beet, maize, and Arabidopsis. BMC Genom 10:94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sun CW, Jia LM, Ye HL, Gao Y, Xiong C, Weng XH (2016) Geographic variation evaluating and correlation with fatty acid composition of economic characters of Sapindus spp. fruits. J Beijing For Univ 38(12):73–83Google Scholar
  31. Sun CW, Jia LM, Xi BY, Wang LC, Weng XH (2017) Natural variation in fatty acid composition of Sapindus spp. seed oil. Ind Crop Prod 102:97–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tan X, Wu Z, Cheng W, Wang T, Li Y (2011) Association analysis and its application in plant genetics research. Chin Bull Bot 46(1):108–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tang Q, Qiu H, Liao W (2008) Determination of total saponins in pericarps of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn by Spectrophotometry. Nat Prod Res Dev 20:84–86Google Scholar
  34. Xia G, Zhu X, Yu C, Dai Y, Wang Z, Huang J, Liu L (2014) Variability of phenotypic characters and fatty acid composition of endemichickory nuts (Carya dabieshanensis) from different geographical provenances. J Fruit Sci 31(3):370–377Google Scholar
  35. Yang ST, Chen C, Zhao YP, Xi W, Zhou XL, Chen BL, Fu CX (2011) Association between chemical and genetic variation of wild and cultivated populations of Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. Planta Med 77(8):865–871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Yu JM, Pressoir G, Briggs WH, Bi IV, Yamasaki M, Doebley JF, McMullen MD, Gaut BS, Nielsen DM, Holland JB, Kresovich S, Buckler ES (2006) A unified mixed model method for association mapping that accounts for multiple levels of relatedness. Nat Genet 38:203–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zoratti L, Palmieri L, Jaakola L, Haggman H (2015) Genetic diversity and population structure of an important wild berry crop. Aob Plants 7:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Caowen Sun
    • 1
  • Liming Jia
    • 1
    Email author
  • Benye Xi
    • 1
  • Jiming Liu
    • 1
  • Lianchun Wang
    • 1
  • Xuehuang Weng
    • 1
  1. 1.Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Silviculture and ConservationBeijing Forestry UniversityBeijingPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations