Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 844–857 | Cite as

Fault Diagnosis of Dynamically Loaded Bearing with Localized Defect Based on Defect-Induced Excitation

  • T. GovardhanEmail author
  • Achintya Choudhury
Technical Article---Peer-Reviewed


The defect-induced excitations causing the bearing to vibrate have significant contribution in vibration generated from rolling element bearings. Therefore, in this work an investigation has been made to estimate the excitations caused by localized defects on different elements of a bearing, viz., inner race, rolling element and outer race, subjected to load. The applied load on a radially loaded bearing is often not of pure static nature but has a dynamic component associated with it. The dynamic load on bearing has been considered to be composed of a static and a dynamic component. The dynamic component has been considered to be either harmonic or random in nature. The spectra of excitations have been obtained to correlate with the significant spectral components of respective response. The amplitudes of harmonic and variance of random loading have been varied to investigate the effects of dynamic loading on excitation spectra. Numerical results have been obtained for NJ305 bearing with normal clearance. For harmonic load, a new spectral component has been noticed in frequency spectrum of excitation for the defects on outer race and rolling element, whereas there is no new component for inner race defect. In the case of random loading, noise in the spectrum has been noticed. The rise in noise level and coefficients of spectral components also perceived with the increase in variance of random load. The rise in noise level with increment in dispersion of random loading is significant so that few spectral components have been masked under the noise for non-stationary defect, whereas for stationary defect the spectral components are clearly detected in spite of rise in noise level. The numerical procedure explained can be extended for different kinds of loading which may be due to the defects in mating components supported by shaft and bearing system.


Bearing Vibration Dynamic load Fault diagnosis Localized defect Excitation Harmonic load Random load 



  1. 1.
    C.S. Sunnersjo, Varying compliance vibrations of rolling bearings. J. Sound Vib. 58, 363–373 (1978). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    M.F. White, Rolling element bearing vibration transfer characteristics: effect of stiffness. J. Appl. Mech. 46, 677–684 (1979). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    T.A. Harris, Rolling Bearing Analysis (Wiley, New York, 1984)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    M.R. Hoeprich, Rolling element bearing fatigue damage propagation. J. Tribol. 114, 328–333 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    N. Tandon, A. Choudhury, A review of vibration and acoustic measurement methods for the detection of defects in rolling element bearings. Tribol. Int. 32, 469–480 (1999). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    P.D. McFadden, J.D. Smith, Model for the vibration produced by a single point defect in a rolling element bearing. J. Sound Vib. 96, 69–82 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    N. Linkai, C. Hongrui, H. Zhengjia, Li Yamini, A systematic study of ball passing frequencies based on dynamic modeling of rolling ball bearings with localized surface defects. J. Vib. Control 357, 207–232 (2015). Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    N. Tandon, A. Choudhury, An analytical model for the prediction of the vibration response of rolling element bearings due to a localized defect. J. Sound Vib. 205, 275–292 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. Choudhury, N. Tandon, Vibration response of rolling element bearings in a rotor-bearing system to a local defect under radial load. J. Tribol. 128, 252 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Z. Kiral, H. Karagulle, Vibration analysis of rolling element bearings with various defects under the action of an unbalanced force. Mech. Syst. Signal Process. 20, 1967–1991 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M.A. Alireza, D. Petersen, C. Howard, A nonlinear dynamic vibration model of defective bearings—the importance of modeling the finite size of rolling elements. Mech. Syst. Signal Process. 52, 309 (2015)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. Singh, U.G. Kopke, C.Q. Howard, D. Petersen, Analyses of contact forces and vibration response for a defective rolling element bearing using an explicit dynamics finite element model. J. Sound Vib. 333, 5356–5377 (2014). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    D. Petersen, C. Howard, Z. Prime, Varying stiffness and load distributions in defective ball bearings: Analytical formulation and application to defect size estimation. J. Sound Vib. 337, 284–300 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    D. Petersen, C. Howard, N. Sawalhi, S. Moazensingh, Analysis of bearing stiffness variations, contact forces and vibrations in radially loaded double row rolling element bearings with raceway defects. Mech. Syst. Signal Process. 50–5, 139–160 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    L. Niu, H. Cao, Z. He, Y. Li, Dynamic modeling and vibration response simulation for high speed rolling ball bearings with localized surface defects in raceways. J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. Technol. 136, 041015–1–041015–16 (2014)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    M.S. Patil, J. Mathew, P.K. Rajendrakumar, S. Desai, A theoretical model to predict the effect of localized defect on vibrations associated with ball bearing. Int. J. Mech. Sci. 52, 1193–1201 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. Tadina, M. Boltezar, Improved model of a ball bearing for the simulation of vibration signals due to faults during run-up. J. Sound Vib. 300, 4287–4301 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    S. Sassi, B. Badri, M. Thomas, A Numerical model to predict damaged bearing vibrations. J. Vib. Control 13, 1603–1628 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    H. Arslan, N. Akturk, An Investigation of rolling element vibrations caused by local defects. J. Tribol. 130, 0441101–1–0441101–12 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    V.N. Patel, N. Tandon, R.K. Pandey, Experimental study for vibration behaviors of locally defective deep groove ball bearings under dynamic radial load. Adv. Acoust. Vib. (2014). Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    U.A. Patel, S.H. Upadhyay, Theoretical model to predict the effect of localized defect on dynamic behavior of cylindrical roller bearing at inner race and outer race. J. Multi-body Dyn. 228, 152–171 (2014)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    F. Wang, M. Jing, J. Yi, G. Dong, H. Liu, J. Bowen, Dynamic modeling for vibration analysis of a cylindrical roller bearing due to localized defects on raceways. J. Multi-body Dyn. 229, 39–64 (2015). Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    F. Cong, J. Chen, G. Dong, M.L. Pecht, Vibration model of rolling element bearings in a rotor-bearing system for fault diagnosis. J. Sound Vib. 332, 2081–2097 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    S. Khanam, J.K. Dutt, N. Tandon, Impact force based model for bearing local fault identification. J. Vib. Acoust. 137, 051002 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    P.K. Kankar, C.S. Satish, S.P. Harsha, Vibration based performance prediction of ball bearings caused by localized defects. Nonlinear Dyn. (2012). Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    A. Ashtekar, F. Sadeghi, L.E. Stacke, A new approach to modeling surface defects in bearing dynamics simulations. J. Tribol. 130, 0441103-1–0441103-8 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    A. Ashtekar, F. Sadeghi, L.E. Stacke, Surface defects effects on bearing dynamics. J. Eng. Tribol. 224, 25 (2010)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Y.M. Shao, J. Liu, J. Ye, A new method to model a localized surface defect in a cylindrical roller- bearing dynamic simulation. J. Eng. Tribol. 228, 140–159 (2013)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    J.T. Gunduz, T. Dreyer, R. Singh, Effect of bearing preloads on the modal characteristics of a shaft-bearing assembly: experiments on double row angular contact ball bearings. Mech. Syst. Signal Process. 31, 176–195 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    J. Gunduz, R. Singh, Stiffness matrix formulation for double row angular contact ball bearings: analytical development and validation. J. Sound Vib. 332, 5898–5916 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Y. Gao, Z. Li, J. Wang, X. Li, Q. An, Influences of bearing housing deflection on vibration performance of cylinder roller bearing-rotor system. J. Multi-body Dyn. 227, 106–114 (2012)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    P. Eschmann, Ball and Roller Bearings-Theory, Design and Application (Wiley, New York, 1985)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    N. Tandon, B.C. Nakra, Detection of defects in rolling element bearings by vibration monitoring. J. Inst. Eng. (India)Mech. Eng. Div. 73, 271–282 (1992)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    T. Govardhan, A. Choudhury, D. Paliwal, Vibration analysis of a rolling element bearing with localized defect under dynamic radial load. J. Vib. Eng. Technol. 5, 167–177 (2017)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    T. Govardhan, A. Choudhury, D. Paliwal, Numerical simulation and vibration analysis of dynamically loaded bearing with defect on rolling element. Int. J. Acoust. Vib. 23, 332–342 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Science and TechnologyICFAI Foundation for Higher EducationHyderabadIndia
  2. 2.Bhartiya Skill Development UniversityJaipurIndia

Personalised recommendations