Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 821–831 | Cite as

Performance Analysis of Machining Ti–6Al–4V Under Cryogenic CO2 Using PVD-TiN Coated Tool

  • K. Nimel Sworna RossEmail author
  • M. Ganesh
Technical Article---Peer-Reviewed


Demand for titanium alloys in different sectors is increasing in recent years due to their outstanding strength-to-weight ratio, ability to retain strength at higher temperatures and resistance to wear. Machining of titanium Ti–6Al–4V has an adverse influence from the premature failure of the tool. Conventional cooling technique fails to reduce the temperature generated at the cutting area attributed to poor surface quality. Liquid carbon dioxide (LCO2) as a cryogenic coolant has turned into a recent trend in machining as it does not require any expensive method of disposal. This experiment investigates the performance of cryogenic cooling technique in the end milling of Ti–6Al–4V using PVD-TiN-coated tool with a different speed-feed combination. The angle of the nozzle was maintained 45° in the feed direction. The results demonstrated that machining with LCO2 lowers the cutting temperature by 39.53–57.44% and surface roughness by 48.24–74.77% compared with wet machining. The impact of utilizing LCO2 as a cryogenic coolant improved the surface and subsurface characteristics.


Ti–6Al–4V Cryogenic LCO2 Nozzle Angle PVD-TiN Environmental 



  1. 1.
    E.O. Ezugwu, Z.M. Wang, Titanium alloys and their machinability. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 68(3x), 262–274 (1997). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    K. Gupta, R.F. Laubscher, Sustainable machining of titanium alloys: a critical review. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part B: J. Eng. Manuf. 231(14), 2543–2560 (2017). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    K.H. Park et al., The effect of cryogenic cooling and minimum quantity lubrication on end milling of titanium alloy Ti–6Al–4V. J. Mech. Sci. Technol. 29(12), 5121–5126 (2015). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    I. Lee et al., Tool life improvement in cryogenic cooled milling of the preheated Ti–6Al–4 V. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 79(1–4), 665–673 (2015). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. Kouam et al., Effects of minimum quantity lubricating (MQL) conditions on machining of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 79(5–8), 1325–1334 (2015). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. Shokrani, V. Dhokia, S.T. Newman, Comparative investigation on using cryogenic machining in CNC milling of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy. Mach. Sci. Technol. 20(3), 475–494 (2016). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    K.A. Venugopal, S. Paul, A.B. Chattopadhya, Growth of tool wear in turning of Ti–6Al–4V alloy under cryogenic cooling. Wear 262, 1071–1078 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Dhananchezian, M.P. Kumar, T. Sornakumar, Cryogenic turning of AISI 304 stainless steel with modified tungsten carbide tool inserts. Mater. Manuf. Process. 26, 781–785 (2011). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    H. Lin et al., Tool wear in Ti–6Al–4V alloy turning under oils on water cooling comparing with cryogenic air mixed with minimal quantity lubrication. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 81(1–4), 87–101 (2015). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. Khan, K. Maity, Influence of cutting speed and cooling method on the machinability of commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) grade II. J. Manuf. Process. Soc. Manuf. Eng. 31, 650–661 (2018). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    A. Pramanik, Problems and solutions in machining of titanium alloys. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 70(5–8), 919–928 (2014). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M.I. Sadik et al., Influence of coolant flow rate on tool life and wear development in cryogenic and wet milling of Ti–6Al–4V. Procedia CIRP 46, 91–94 (2016). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. Cordes, F. Hübner, T. Schaarschmidt, Next generation high performance cutting by use of carbon dioxide as cryogenics. Procedia CIRP 14, 401–405 (2014). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    B.D. Jerold, M.P. Kumar, Machining of AISI 316 stainless steel under carbon-di-oxide cooling. Mater. Manuf. Processes 27(10), 1059–1065 (2012). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    N.G. Patil et al., Comparative study of high speed machining of inconel 718 in dry condition and by using compressed cold carbon dioxide gas as coolant. Procedia CIRP 24(3), 86–91 (2014). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    O. Pereira et al., The use of hybrid CO2 + MQL in machining operations. Procedia Eng 132, 492–499 (2015). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. Elanchezhian, M. Pradeep Kumar, Effect of nozzle angle and depth of cut on grinding titanium under cryogenic CO2. Mater. Manuf. Process. 33(13), 1466–1470 (2018). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    S. Ravi, M.P. Kumar, Experimental investigations on cryogenic cooling by liquid nitrogen in the end milling of hardened steel. Cryogenics 51(92), 509–515 (2011). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Y. Kaynak, Evaluation of machining performance in cryogenic machining of Inconel 718 and comparison with dry and MQL machining. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 72(5–8), 919–933 (2014). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    K. Nimel Sworna Ross, G. Manimaran, Effect of cryogenic coolant on machinability of difficult-to-machine Ni–Cr alloy using PVD-TiAlN coated WC tool. J. Brazilian Soc. Mech. Sci. Eng. 41, 1–14 (2019). Scholar
  21. 21.
    P. Sivaiah, D. Chakradhar, Comparative evaluations of machining performance during turning of 17-4 PH stainless steel under cryogenic and wet machining conditions. Mach. Sci. Technol. 22(1), 147–162 (2018). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    O.N. Celik et al., Effect of cryogenic treatment on the microstructure and the wear behavior of WC-Co end mills for machining of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy. Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. 95(5–8), 2989–2999 (2018). CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringSaveetha Engineering CollegeChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringSt. Joseph’s College of EngineeringChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations