Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention

, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp 431–437 | Cite as

Application of Casting Simulation in Failure Analysis of Impeller

  • Yudha PratesaEmail author
  • Badrul Munir
  • Suryadi Najamuddin
Technical Article---Peer-Reviewed


Commercial programs using finite element analysis (FEA) have been developed for casting design process. However, their applications have been limited mostly during the casting design stage. This paper explores the possibility of using casting design software for failure analysis. An impeller was failed during services by impact load. The fracture occurred at the thin shroud area of the impeller and showed brittle appearance. Hardness test shows differences of hardness number between thin area (shrouds) and thick area at the impeller, resulted from microstructure differences at the impeller. Shrouds area contained high percentage of graphite (type B) and several undercooled phases (type D graphite) which is typical result for high cooling rate solidification. This microstructure reduced the mechanical properties. SEM examination shows transgranular fracture which is typical for brittle fracture mechanism and reveals higher graphite content at shrouds. Accumulation of titanium, calcium and silicon at the center of graphite was detected using EDAX. FEA simulation using Z-CAST confirms the development of microstructure differences which are substantially affected by casting designs and solidification characteristics.


Finite element analysis (FEA) Failure analysis Casting Simulation 



  1. 1.
    R.E. Melchers, Long-term corrosion of cast irons and steel in marine and atmospheric environments. Corros. Sci. 68, 186–194 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    O. Oloyede, R.F. Cochrane, A.M. Mullis, Phase Transformation, Microstructural Evolution and Property Modification in Rapidly Solidified Grey Cast Iron (Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2017), pp. 719–727Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    ASTM A247, Standard Test Method for Evaluating the Microstructure of Graphite in Iron Castings (ASTM International, 2010)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    H.T. Angus, Cast Iron: Physical and Engineering Properties (Elsevier, Oxford, 2013)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J.R. Davis, ASM Specialty Handbook: Cast Irons (ASM international, Almere, 1996)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Y.O. Masao Kikuchi, A.T. Hiroshi Kasai, Melting and casting condition necessary for rosette graphite formation in gray cast iron. J. Jpn. Foundrym. Soc. 56(5), 276–281 (1985)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Z. Yu, X. Xu, H. Yu, Prevention, failure analysis of the related components of a locomotive turbocharger. J. Fail. Anal. Prevent. 15(3), 407–416 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Skaland, Torbj Slashed Rn O. Cast iron inoculant and method for production of cast iron inoculant. U.S. Patent No. 6,102,983. 15 August 2000Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    B. Lux, Modern Casting, vol. 45 (1964), pp. 222–232Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. Sissener, et al., Cast iron with vermicular graphite. AFS Cast Met. Res. J. 8, 178–181 (1972)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    M.S. Ramaprasad, C.S. Narendranath, M.N. Srinivasan, Some Aspects of Grey and Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron, Cast in Metallic Moulds (The Metals Society, 1983), pp. 336–344Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Metallurgy and Materials EngineeringUniversitas IndonesiaDepokIndonesia

Personalised recommendations