Erosion Studies of D-Gun-Sprayed WC-12%Co, Cr3C2-25%NiCr and Al2O3-13%TiO2 Coatings on ASTM A36 Steel

  • Vineet ShibeEmail author
  • Vikas Chawla
Peer Reviewed


Solid particle erosion studies were conducted in simulated coal-fired boiler environment in order to compare the erosion behavior of three different types of detonation gun (D-Gun)-thermally-sprayed coating powders, i.e., WC-12%Co, Cr3C2-25%NiCr and Al2O3-13%TiO2 on ASTM A36 steel and bare ASTM A36 steel. Erosion studies were conducted by using an air jet erosion test rig at impact angles of 45°, 60° and 90°. During the erosion studies, weight loss and erosion rates in terms of volume loss (mm3/g) were determined by using an optical profilometer. WC-12%Co-coated specimens exhibited the behavior closer to the behavior of ductile materials, whereas Cr3C2-25%NiCr- and Al2O3-13%TiO2-coated specimens exhibited the typical behavior of brittle materials. All the three different types of D-Gun-sprayed coating powders had successfully protected the ASTM A36 steel from solid particle erosion at an impact angle of 45°. Out of the three different types of coatings, two coatings, i.e., WC-12%Co and Cr3C2-25%NiCr, had successfully protected the ASTM A36 steel from solid particle erosion at impact angles of 60° and 90°. This paper evaluates the solid particle erosion behavior of bare and coated ASTM A36 steel which will be helpful in choosing the suitable coating for induced draft fan applications.


Air jet erosion testing Detonation gun Erosion Induced draft fan Volume erosion rate 



  1. 1.
    B. Bhushan and B.K. Gupta, Handbook of Tribology-Material Coating and Surface Treatments, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2011Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. Prabu, Erosion Resistant Coatings—A Review, Int. J. Innov. Eng. Technol., 2015, 5(2), p 270-273Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    V. Chawla, A. Chawla, D. Puri, S. Prakash, P.G. Gurbuxani, and B.S. Sidhu, Hot Corrosion and Erosion Problems in Coal based Power Plants in India and Possible Solutions—A Review, J. Miner. Mater. Charact. Eng., 2011, 10(4), p 367-385Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    C. Harley and K. Scott Trunkett, Coal-Gen-Improving Plant Performance with Advanced Wear Protection Technologies, Conforma Clad Inc., Albany, 2003Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    S.Y. Semenov and B.M. Cetegen, Experiments and Modeling of the Deposition of Nano-structured Alumina-Titania Coatings by Detonation Waves, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2002, 335, p 67-81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    N. Wagner, K. Gnadic, H. Kreye, and H. Kronewetter, Particle Velocity in Hypersonic Flame Spraying of WC-Co, Surf. Coat. Technol., 1984, 22, p 61-71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Y.N. Wu, F.H. Wang, W.G. Hua, J. Gong, C. Sun, and L.S. Wen, Oxidation Behavior of Thermal Barrier Coatings Obtained by Detonation Spraying, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2003, 166, p 189-194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    S.B. Mishra, K. Chandra, and S. Prakash, Studies on Erosion-Corrosion Behaviour of Plasma Sprayed Ni3Al Coating in a Coal-Fired Thermal Power Plant Environment at 540°C, Anti Corros. Methods Mater., 2017, 64(5), p 540-549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Y.U. Kharlamov, Impact Interaction of the Particles with the Substrate in Detonation Spray-Deposition, Powder Metall. Met. Ceram., 1974, 13(10), p 820-824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    V.S. Klimenko, Detonation Spray-Deposition of Alumina of Various Degrees of Filling of the Barrel with Carrier Gas, Poroshk. Metall., 1979, 10(202), p 47-49Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. Murthy and B. Venkataraman, Abrasive Wear Behavior of WC-CoCr and Cr3C2-20(NiCr) Deposited by HVOF and Detonation Spray Processes, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2006, 200(8), p 2642-2652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sukhpal Singh Chatha, Hazoor S. Sidhu, and Buta S. Sidhu, Characterisation and Corrosion-Erosion Behaviour of Carbide Based Thermal Spray Coatings, J. Miner. Mater. Charact. Eng., 2012, 11(6), p 569-586Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. Mruthunjaya and K.I. Parashivamurthy, Microstructural Study and Tribological Behavior of WC-Co Coatings on Stainless Steel produced by HVOF Spray Technique, Int. J. Mech. Eng. Technol., 2014, 5(1), p 132-139Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    P.S. Babu, P.C. Rao, A. Jyothirmayi, P.S. Phani, L.R. Krishna, and D.S. Rao, Evaluation of Microstructure, Property and Performance of Detonation Sprayed WC-(W, Cr)2C-Ni Coatings, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2018, 335, p 345-354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    C.M. Preece, Erosion of Metals and Alloys, Surface Effects in Crystal Plasticity, Sept 13–14, 1976, Nato Advanced Study Institute, Hohegeiss, 1976, p 889-909Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J.K.N. Murthy, D.S. Rao, and B. Venkataraman, Effect of Grinding on the Erosion Behaviour of a WC-Co-Cr Coating Deposited by HVOF and Detonation Gun Spray Process, Wear, 2001, 249(7), p 592-600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    I.M. Hutchings, Transitions, Threshold Effects and Erosion Maps, Key Eng. Mater., 1992, 71, p 75-92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    H.S. Sidhu, B.S. Sidhu, and S. Prakash, Solid Particle Erosion of HVOF Sprayed NiCr and Stellite-6 Coatings, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2007, 202, p 232-238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    S.K. Das, K.M. Godiwalla, S.P. Mehrotra, K.K.M. Sastry, and P.K. Dey, Analytical Model for Erosion Behavior of Impacted Fly-Ash Particles on Coal-Fired Boiler Components, Sadhana, 2006, 31(5), p 583-595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    E. Kosa and A. Göksenli, Effect of Impact Angle on Erosive Abrasive Wear of Ductile and Brittle Materials, Int. J. Mech. Aerosp. Ind. Mechatron. Manuf. Eng., 2015, 9(9), p 1638-1642Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    B.F. Levin, K.S. Vecchio, J.N. Dupont, and A.R. Marder, Modelling Solid-Particle Erosion of Ductile Alloys, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 1999, 30(7), p 1763-1774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    G. Sundararajan and Manish Roy, Solid Particle Erosion Behavior of Metallic Materials at Room and Elevated Temperatures, Tribol. Int., 1997, 30(5), p 339-359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    P. Kulu, I. Hussainova, and R. Veinthal, Solid Particle Erosion of Thermal Sprayed Coatings, Wear, 2005, 258(1–4), p 488-496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    P. Kulu and J. Halling, Recycled Hard Metal-Base Wear-Resistance Composite Coatings, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 1998, 7(2), p 173-178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    S. Guessasma, G. Zhang, H. Liao, C. Coddet, and J.M. Bordes, Investigation of Friction and Wear Behavior of SiC-Filled Peek Coatings Using Artificial Neural Network, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2006, 200(8), p 2610-2617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    J.R.T. Branco, R. Gansert, S. Sampath, C.C. Berndt, and H. Herman, Solid Particle Erosion of Plasma Sprayed Ceramic Coatings, Mater. Res., 2004, 7(1), p 147-153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    K.A. Habib, J.J. Saura, C. Ferrer, M.S. Damra, E. Giménez, and L. Cabedo, Comparison of Flame Sprayed Al2O3/TiO2 Coatings: Their Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Tribology Behavior, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2006, 201(3–4), p 1436-1443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    H.M. Hawthorne, B. Arsenault, and J.P. Immarigeon, Comparison of Slurry and Dry Erosion Behavior of Some HVOF Thermal Sprayed Coatings, Wear, 1999, 225–229(2), p 825-834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    J. Vicenzi, Relação Entre Microestrutura e Erosão (A Frio e a Quente) de Revestimentos do Sistema -Cr3C2 Obtidos Por Aspersão Térmica (Relationship Between Microstructure and Erosion (The Cold and Hot) Coatings of the System NiCr-Cr3C2 Obtained by Thermal Spraying). Ph.D. Thesis, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 2007Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    J. Wang, L. Zhang, B. Sun, and Y. Zhou, Study of the Cr3C2-NiCr Detonation Spray Coating, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2000, 130(1), p 69-73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    V. Matikainen, K. Niemi, H. Koivuluoto, and P. Vuoristo, Abrasion, Erosion and Cavitation Erosion Wear Properties of Thermally Sprayed Alumina Based Coatings, Coatings, 2014, 4(1), p 18-36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    D. Wang, Z. Tian, S. Wang, L. Shen, and Y. Huang, Solid Particle Erosion Behaviour of Plasma-Sprayed Conventional and Nanostructured Al2O3-13 wt% TiO2 Ceramic Coatings, Trans. Indian Ceram. Soc., 2015, 74(2), p 90-96CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringB.H.S.B.I.E.TLehragagaIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringIKG Punjab Technical University, Hoshiarpur CampusHoshiarpurIndia

Personalised recommendations