Effect of Substrate Surface Roughness on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Cold-Sprayed Ti6Al4V Coatings on Ti6Al4V Substrates

  • Adrian Wei-Yee TanEmail author
  • Wen Sun
  • Ayan Bhowmik
  • Jun Yan Lek
  • Xu Song
  • Wei Zhai
  • Han Zheng
  • Feng Li
  • Iulian Marinescu
  • Zhili Dong
  • Erjia LiuEmail author
Peer Reviewed


Surface condition, especially surface roughness of substrates, critically influences the adhesion of cold-sprayed titanium alloy coatings. To study this, Ti6Al4V (Ti64) coatings were deposited on Ti64 substrates with increasing surface roughness (Ra) from 0.05 µm (polished surface) to 5.4 µm (water-jet cut surface). It was found that the substrate surface roughness did not significantly affect the porosity, hardness and coating surface roughness because these properties were dependent on the deposition parameters such as propellant gas pressure and temperature and nozzle traverse speed. The adhesion test results showed that smoother substrate surfaces improved the coating bond strength of the cold-sprayed Ti64 coatings from about 7.1 MPa (Ra: 5.4 µm, interface failure) to 68.7 MPa (Ra: 0.05 µm, glue failure). The fracture characteristics of the debonded coating/substrate interfaces revealed that there were more adiabatic shear-induced craters observed on the smoother substrate surfaces. Finite element modeling also showed that the substrate surface features (i.e., peaks and valleys) possibly prevented the intimate contact between the particles and substrate and thus induced the non-uniform distributions of temperature, stress and strain at the particle/substrate interface.


finite element analysis high-pressure cold spray mechanical properties substrate surface condition Ti6Al4V powder/coating/substrate 



This work was financially supported by the National Research Foundation (NRF), Rolls-Royce (RR) and Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore, with the research grant (ARMS 1.1 Advanced metalized coatings using cold spray project).

Supplementary material

11666_2019_926_MOESM1_ESM.docx (814 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 814 kb)


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Copyright information

© ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adrian Wei-Yee Tan
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Wen Sun
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ayan Bhowmik
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jun Yan Lek
    • 3
  • Xu Song
    • 4
  • Wei Zhai
    • 5
  • Han Zheng
    • 2
    • 5
  • Feng Li
    • 1
    • 6
  • Iulian Marinescu
    • 1
    • 6
  • Zhili Dong
    • 7
  • Erjia Liu
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Rolls-Royce@NTU Corporate LabNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.School of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore
  3. 3.Facility for Analysis, Characterisation, Testing and Simulation (FACTS)Nanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore
  4. 4.School of Mechanical and Automation EngineeringChinese University of Hong KongShatinHong Kong
  5. 5.Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology (SIMTech)SingaporeSingapore
  6. 6.Central Technology GroupRolls-Royce Singapore Pte LtdSingaporeSingapore
  7. 7.School of Materials Science and EngineeringNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore

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