Journal of Thermal Spray Technology

, Volume 28, Issue 5, pp 1025–1038 | Cite as

Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Fluoridated Hydroxyapatite/Calcium Silicate Composite Coatings for Biomedical Applications

  • Sheng-jian Zhou
  • Yu BaiEmail author
  • Wen Ma
  • Wei-dong Chen
Peer Reviewed


A novel fluoridated hydroxyapatite/calcium silicate (FHA/CS) composite coating deposited via suspension plasma spraying has been designed to improve the bonding strength between coating and substrate and to provide a suitable dissolution rate for faster initial bone fixation. Composite coatings with different ratios of FHA to CS were fabricated on Ti substrates by changing the composition of the suspension. The thicknesses of the composite coatings ranged from 75 to 92 μm with porosity of 7.4-8.3%. When the ratio of FHA to CS is 3:7, the composite coating shows the highest bonding strength and dissolution rate. The in vitro bioactivity of the coatings was characterized by evaluating their apatite-forming ability after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). The results show that the composite coatings possess strong reactivity after immersion in SBF. The antibacterial behavior of the coatings was also examined by observing the number of viable bacteria after incubation with the composite coatings; the data show that the proliferation of Staphylococcus aureus can be inhibited. Given the combination of high bonding strength, good chemical resistance, excellent apatite-forming ability and antibacterial activity, the FHA/CS composite coating should be a very promising coating material for implants.


antibacterial activity bonding strength calcium silicate chemical stability fluoridated hydroxyapatite suspension plasma spraying 



This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51672136), Natural Science Foundation of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (2018MS05010), Science and Technology Major Project of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (2018-810) and Research Innovation Program for Postgraduate of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (S2018111948Z).


  1. 1.
    L.L. Hench, Biomaterials: A Forecast for the Future, Biomaterials, 1998, 19, p 1419-1423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    X. Zheng, M. Huang, and C. Ding, Bond Strength of Plasma-Sprayed Hydroxyapatite/Ti Composite Coatings, Biomaterials, 2000, 21, p 841-849CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Y.C. Yang and E. Chang, Influence of Residual Stress on Bonding Strength and Fracture of Plasma-Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings on Ti-6Al-4V Substrate, Biomaterials, 2001, 22, p 1827-1836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Y. Chen and X. Miao, Thermal and Chemical Stability of Fluorohydroxyapatite Ceramics with Different Fluorine Contents, Biomaterials, 2005, 26, p 1205-1210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    X. Wang, Y. Zhou, L. Xia, C. Zhao, L. Chen, D. Yi, J. Chang, L. Huang, X. Zheng, H. Zhu, Y. Xie, Y. Xu, and K. Lin, Fabrication of Nano-structured Calcium Silicate Coatings with Enhanced Stability, Bioactivity and Osteogenic and Angiogenic Activity, Colloid Surf. B, 2015, 126, p 358-366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    X. Liu, C. Ding, and Z. Wang, Apatite Formed on the Surface of Plasma-Sprayed Wollastonite Coating Immersed in Simulated Body Fluid, Biomaterials, 2001, 22, p 2007-2012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    X. Liu and C. Ding, Characterization of Plasma Sprayed Wollastonite Powder And Coatings, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2002, 153, p 173-177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    X. Liu and C. Ding, Plasma Sprayed Wollastonite/TiO2 Composite Coatings on Titanium Alloys, Biomaterials, 2002, 23, p 4065-4077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    X. Liu, S. Tao, and C. Ding, Bioactivity of Plasma Sprayed Dicalcium Silicate Coatings, Biomaterials, 2002, 23, p 963-968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    R.B. Heimann and H.D. Lehmann, Biomedical Coatings for Medical Implants, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2015, p 285-287Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Y. Xie, P.K. Chu, X.Y. Liu, and C.X. Ding, Improve Stability of Dicalcium Silicate/Zirconia Composite Coatings by Post-spraying Heat Treatment, Solid State Phenom., 2005, 107, p 141-144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    F. Baino and C. Vitale-Brovarone, Wollastonite-Containing Bioceramic Coatings on Alumina Substrates: Design Considerations and Mechanical Modeling, Ceram. Int., 2015, 41, p 11464-11470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. Cizek and K.A. Khor, Role of In-flight Temperature and Velocity of Powder Particles on Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coating Characteristics, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2012, 206, p 2181-2191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    K.A. Bhadang and K.A. Gross, Influence of Fluorapatite on the Properties of Thermally Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings, Biomaterials, 2004, 25, p 4935-4945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    H. Qu and M. Wei, The Effect of Fluoride Contents in Fluoridated Hydroxyapatite on Osteoblast Behavior, Acta Biomater., 2006, 2, p 113-119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. Wang, Y. Chao, Q. Wan, Z. Zhu, and H. Yu, Fluoridated Hydroxyapatite Coatings on Titanium Obtained by Electrochemical Deposition, Acta Biomater., 2009, 5, p 1798-1807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Y. Wang, S. Zhang, X. Zeng, L.L. Ma, W. Weng, W. Yan, and M. Qian, Osteoblastic Cell Response on Fluoridated Hydroxyapatite Coatings, Acta Biomater., 2007, 3, p 191-197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    P. Hameeda, V. Gopal, S. Bjorklund, A. Ganvir, D. Sen, N. Markocsan, and G. Manivasagam, Axial Suspension Plasma Spraying: An Ultimate Technique to Tailor Ti6Al4V Surface with HAp for Orthopaedic Applications, Colloid Surf. B, 2019, 173, p 806-815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    D. Li, J. Feng, H. Zhao, C. Liu, L. Zhang, F. Shao, Y. Zhao, and S. Tao, Microstructure Formed by Suspension Plasma Spraying: From YSZ Splat to Coating, Ceram. Int., 2017, 43, p 7488-7496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    S. Kanhed, S. Awasthi, S. Goel, A. Pandey, R. Sharma, A. Upadhyaya, and K. Balani, Porosity Distribution Affecting Mechanical and Biological Behaviour of Hydroxyapatite Bioceramic Composites, Ceram. Int., 2017, 43, p p10442-p10449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    J. Zhang, G. Liu, Q. Wu, and J. Zuo, Novel Mesoporous Hydroxyapatite/Chitosan Composite for Bone Repair, J. Bionic Eng., 2012, 9, p 243-251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    H. Xu, X. Geng, G. Liu, J. Xiao, D. Li, Y. Zhang, P. Zhu, and C. Zhang, Deposition, Nanostructure and Phase Composition of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings, Ceram. Int., 2016, 42, p 8684-8690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. Cizek, V. Brozek, T. Chraska, F. Lukac, J. Medricky, R. Musalek, T. Tesar, F. Siska, Z. Antos, J. Cupera, M. Matejkova, Z. Spotz, S. Houdkova, and M. Kverk, Silver-Doped Hydroxyapatite Coatings Deposited by Suspension Plasma Spraying, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2018, 27, p 1333-1343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Y. Cao, J. Weng, J. Chen, J. Feng, Z. Yang, and X. Zhang, Water Vapour-Treated Hydroxyapatite Coatings After Plasma Spraying and Their Characteristics, Biomaterials, 1996, 17, p 419-424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    L. Pawlowski, The Science and Engineering of Thermal Spray Coatings, Wiley, Chichester, 2008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    D.D. Deligianni, N.D. Katsala, P.G. Koutsoukos, and Y.F. Missirlis, Effect of Surface Roughness of Hydroxyapatite on Human Bone Marrow Cell Adhesion, Proliferation, Differentiation and Detachment Strength, Biomaterials, 2001, 22, p 87-96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. Li, H. Liao, and M. Söjström, Characterization of Calcium Phosphates Precipitated from Simulated Body Fluid of Different Buffering Capacities, Biomaterials, 1997, 18, p 743-747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Y. Bai, Y. Bai, J. Gao, W. Ma, J. Su, and R. Jia, Preparation and Characterization of Reduced Graphene Oxide/Fluorhydroxyapatite Composites for Medical Implants, J. Alloys Compd., 2016, 688, p 657-667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    A. Dey, A.K. Mukhopadhyay, S. Gangadharan, M.K. Sinha, and D. Basu, Characterization of Microplasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coating, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2009, 18, p 578-592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    X. Liu and C. Ding, Thermal Properties and Microstructure of a Plasma Sprayed Wollastonite Coating, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2002, 11, p 375-379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    ISO 13779-2, Implants for Surgery-Hydroxyapatite-Part 2: Coatings of Hydroxyapatite, 2008Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    C. Wu, Y. Ramaswamy, X. Liu, G. Wang, and H. Zreiqat, Plasma-Sprayed CaTiSiO5 Ceramic Coating on Ti-6Al-4V with Excellent Bonding Strength, Stability and Cellular Bioactivity, J. R. Soc. Interface, 2009, 6, p 159-168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Y. Liang, Y. Xie, H. Ji, L. Huang, and X. Zheng, Excellent Stability of Plasma-Sprayed Bioactive Ca3ZrSi2O9 Ceramic Coating on Ti-6Al-4V, Appl. Surf. Sci., 2010, 256, p 4677-4681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    M.A. Sainz, P. Pena, S. Serena, and A. Caballero, Influence of Design on Bioactivity of Novel CaSiO3-CaMg(SiO3)2 Bioceramics: In Vitro Simulated Body Fluid Test and Thermodynamic Simulation, Acta Biomater., 2010, 6, p 2797-2807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    X. Ge, Y. Leng, C. Bao, S.L. Xu, R. Wang, and F. Ren, Antibacterial Coatings of Fluoridated Hydroxyapatite for Percutaneous Implants, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. A, 2010, 95, p 588-599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    A. Wiegand, W. Buchalla, and T. Attin, Review on Fluoride-Releasing Restorative Materials-Fluoride Release and Uptake Characteristics, Antibacterial Activity and Influence on Caries Formation, Dental Mater., 2007, 23, p 343-362CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sheng-jian Zhou
    • 1
  • Yu Bai
    • 1
    Email author
  • Wen Ma
    • 1
  • Wei-dong Chen
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Materials Science and EngineeringInner Mongolia University of Technology, Inner Mongolia Key Laboratory of Thin Film and CoatingsHohhotChina

Personalised recommendations