Journal of Thermal Spray Technology

, Volume 28, Issue 5, pp 974–985 | Cite as

Fabrication of Composite Heat Sinks Consisting of a Thin Metallic Skin and a Polymer Core Using Wire-Arc Spraying

  • Chen FengEmail author
  • Michael Gibbons
  • Sanjeev Chandra
Peer Reviewed


Three composite heat sinks in the shape of a disk, a cylinder, and a cylinder with vertically projecting fins were made by applying a thin (0.4-0.7 mm) zinc layer onto ABS polymer cores using wire-arc spraying. The influence of spray distance and surface roughness on the adhesion strength between the zinc and ABS layers was investigated, and a maximum adhesion strength of 2.6 MPa was obtained. An analytical model of the heat conduction in an annular fin was developed, assuming one-dimensional heat conduction in the metal coating and two-dimensional conduction in the polymer core. The temperature distribution along the disk-shaped heat sink was measured using an infrared camera and found to agree well with the developed model. The calculated temperatures at the base of the heat sink also agreed with measured values as heater power was varied. The model was used to examine the effect of fin radius and coating thickness on fin efficiency.


analytical model electronic cooling fin efficiency heat sinks heat transfer 



  1. 1.
    Y. Narukawa et al., White Light Emitting Diodes with Super-High Luminous Efficacy, J. Phys. D Appl. Phys., 2010, 43(35), p 354002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    L. Kim et al., Thermal Analysis of LED Array System with Heat Pipe, Thermochim. Acta, 2007, 455(1-2), p 21-25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    S.C. Yang et al., A Study of Heat Transfer Characteristics of LED Heat Sink and Graphite Heat Sink Process Technology Development, Appl. Mech. Mater., 2013, 284-287, p 819-823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    C. Feng, Investigation of Thermal Performance of Heat Spreaders Fabricated by Thermal Spray Technology. Ph.D. Thesis, 2019.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Y.P. Mamunya et al., Electrical and Thermal Conductivity of Polymers Filled with Metal Powders, Eur. Polym. J., 2002, 38, p 1887-1897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    R.-T. Wang and J.-C. Wang, Analyzing the Structural Designs and Thermal Performance of Nonmetal Lighting Devices of LED Bulbs, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 2016, 99, p 750-761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    R. Mohan and P. Govindarajan, Thermal Analysis of CPU with Composite Pin Fin Heat Sinks, Int. J. Eng. Sci. Technol., 2010, 2(9), p 4051-4062Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. Arshad et al., Thermal Performance of Phase Change Material (PCM) Based Pin-Finned Heat Sinks for Electronics Devices: Effect of Pin Thickness and PCM Volume Fraction, Appl. Therm. Eng., 2017, 112, p 143-155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    J.R. Stark, C.D. Sevart, and T.L. Bergman, Experimentally Validated Analytical Expressions for the Thermal Resistance of a Novel Composite Fin-Foam Annular Array, Appl. Therm. Eng., 2018, 131, p 260-269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J.J. Barker, The Efficiency of Composite Fins, Nucl. Sci. Eng., 2017, 3(3), p 300-312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J.H. Lindsay, Coatings and Coating Processes for Metals, ASM International, Member/Customer Service Center, Materials Park, 1998, p 353Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    H. Che et al., Metallization of Various Polymers by Cold Spray, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2017, 27(1-2), p 169-178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    H. Che, P. Vo, and S. Yue, Investigation of Cold Spray on Polymers by Single Particle Impact Experiments, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2018, 28(1-2), p 135-143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J.H.K. Haertel and G.F. Nellis, A Fully Developed Flow Thermofluid Model for Topology Optimization of 3D-Printed Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers, Appl. Therm. Eng., 2017, 119, p 10-24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    R. Gonzalez et al., A Review of Thermal Spray Metallization of Polymer-Based Structures, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2016, 25(5), p 897-919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    D. Kumlutas, I.H. Tavman, and M.T. Coban, Thermal Conductivity of Particle Filled Polyethylene Composite Materials, Compos. Sci. Technol., 2003, 63, p 113-117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    F.C. Porter, Zinc Handbook: Properties, Processing, and Use in Design, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. Vollmer and M. Klaus-Peter, Infrared Thermal Imaging: Fundamentals, Research and Applications, Wiley, New York, 2017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    J.M.S. Jabardo et al., Evaluation of the Rohsenow Correlation Through Experimental Pool Boiling of Halocarbon Refrigerants on Cylindrical Surfaces, J. Braz. Soc. Mech. Sci. Eng., 2004, 26, p 218-230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    M.H. Sharqawy and S.M. Zubair, Efficiency and Optimization of an Annular Fin with Combined Heat and Mass Transfer—An Analytical Solution, Int. J. Refrig., 2007, 30(5), p 751-757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. Ullmann and H. Kalman, Efficiency and Optimized Dimensions of Annular Fins of Different Cross-Section Shapes, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 1989, 32, p 1100-1110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    S. Lalot, C. Tournier, and M. Jensen, Fin Efficiency of Annular Fins Made of Two Materials, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., 1999, 42(18), p 3461-3467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    E. Mokheimer et al., A Spreadsheet Solution of Transient Conduction in Composite Fins, Int. J. Energy Res., 2002, 26(5), p 383-397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    D. Xiong et al., Heat Conduction in Two-Dimensional Disk Models, Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlinear Soft Matter Phys., 2010, 82(3 Pt 1), p 030101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    D.P. DeWitt, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, Wiley, New York, 2002Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    P. Tu et al., Fin Efficiency of an Annular Fin Composed of a Substrate Metallic Fin and a Coating Layer, J. Heat Transf., 2006, 128(8), p 851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    G. Arfken, Bessel functions of the first kind, JV(x) and Orthogonality, in Mathematical Methods for Physicists, 1985, pp 573–591 and 591–596.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    G. Arfken, Neumann functions, Bessel functions of the second kind, Nv(x), in Mathematical Methods for Physicists, 1985, pp 596–604.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    R. Rezaey et al., Fabrication of Wire Mesh Heat Exchangers for Waste Heat Recovery Using Wire Arc Spraying, J. Therm. Spray Technol., 2014, 23, p 609-615CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Advanced Coating TechnologiesUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations