Journal of Thermal Spray Technology

, Volume 27, Issue 7, pp 1153–1164 | Cite as

Effects of Post-spray Heat Treatment on Hardness and Wear Properties of Ti-WC High-Pressure Cold Spray Coatings

  • Jonathan Tang
  • Gobinda C. SahaEmail author
  • Peter Richter
  • Ján Kondás
  • Alberto Colella
  • Paolo Matteazzi
Peer Reviewed


In this research, the effects of post-spray heat treatment at 550 and 650 °C for 1 h on a cermet Ti-WC nanostructured coating deposited onto AISI 304 stainless steel substrates by high-pressure cold spray was observed. A metallic Ti interlayer was further used to compensate for stresses resulting from subsequent heat treatment on the developed coating. Microstructural analysis of the as-deposited coating by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed mostly fine WC grain (below 1 µm) present in the coating with a few larger 4 µm grains dispersed homogeneously throughout. X-ray diffraction analysis of the as-sprayed coating showed no noticeable evidence of WC decarburization. Heat treatment of the coating caused porosity to decrease from above 1.7% to below 0.5%, traced by SEM image analysis. Post-spray heat treatment promotes the formation of new carbide phases caused by the reactions between the Ti binder and WC grains, resulting in significant increases to Vickers microhardness. Evidence of an SHS reaction that produces TiC with heat treatment is confirmed with SEM image analysis as well as (S)TEM area mapping techniques, further supported by selected area electron diffraction analysis. Three-body sliding wear/abrasion tests have shown that wear resistance of Ti-WC cold spray coatings increases with heat treatment as well. In all, the effect of post-spray heat treatment behavior of nanostructured Ti-WC coating will be compared with that of as-sprayed behavior and WC-Co cold spray coatings.


cermet cold spray coating heat treatment hardness Ti-WC wear resistance 



The authors are thankful for the funding provided by Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (RGPIN-2018-04440). Additional funding from New Brunswick Innovation Foundation (RIF-2016-015) is gratefully appreciated. The microscopic characterization and the (S)TEM work were supported by the Microscopy and Microanalysis Facility at the University of New Brunswick Fredericton campus. Authors are thankful to Clean Technologies Research Institute (Dalhousie University, NS) for providing an access to the FIB equipment in this research. The powder and coating samples were developed and provided within the “PilotManu” project, funded from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under Grant Agreement No. 604344.


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Copyright information

© ASM International 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonathan Tang
    • 1
  • Gobinda C. Saha
    • 1
    Email author
  • Peter Richter
    • 2
  • Ján Kondás
    • 2
  • Alberto Colella
    • 3
  • Paolo Matteazzi
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of New BrunswickFrederictonCanada
  2. 2.Impact Innovations GmbHHaun/RattenkirchenGermany
  3. 3.MBN Nanomaterialia SpAVascon di CarboneraItaly

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