Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Optimization of the Duration of Ultrasonic Shot Peening for Enhancement of Fatigue Life of the Alloy Ti-6Al-4V

  • 11 Accesses


In the present investigation, surface nanostructure was developed on the alloy Ti-6Al-4V using ultrasonic shot peening (USP) and its effect was studied on tensile strength and low-cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior. The gage section of tensile and LCF samples was ultrasonic-shot-peened (USPed) for durations of 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 min with hard steel shots of 3 mm diameter at constant frequency of 20 kHz using StressVoyager to modify the surface. The yield and tensile strength increased; however, ductility was marginally reduced due to USP. Some of the ultrasonic-shot-peened samples were stress-relieved (SR) at 400 °C for 1 h. LCF tests were conducted on the non-ultrasonic-shot-peened (non-USPed), USPed and USPed + SR samples at different total strain amplitudes (± Δεt/2) of 0.95, 0.85, 0.75 and 0.65% at constant strain rate of 1 × 10−3 s−1. LCF life of the USPed samples was found to be higher than that of the non-USPed sample. LCF life of the USPed specimen at Δεt/2 = ± 0.65% was enhanced by ~ 4 times that of the non-USPed sample. However, the enhanced LCF life of the USPed samples was reduced following stress relieving treatment at 400 °C due to relaxation of the associated compressive stress, though it was still higher than that of the non-USPed sample.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14


  1. 1.

    G.Q. Chen, J. Yan, T.Y. Tian, X.H. Zhang, Z.Q. Li, and W.L. Zhou, Effect of Wet Shot Peening on Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Treated by Ceramic Beads, Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, 2014, 24, p 690–696

  2. 2.

    R.R. Boyer, An Overview on the Use of Titanium in the Aerospace Industry, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 1996, 213, p 103–114

  3. 3.

    C. Liu, D. Liu, X. Zhang, D. Liu, A. Ma, N. Ao, and X. Xu, Improving Fatigue Performance of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy via Ultrasonic Surface Rolling Process, J Mater Sci. Technol., 2019, 35, p 1555–1562

  4. 4.

    T. Akahori, M. Niinomi, K. Fukunaga, and I. Inagaki, Effects of Microstructure on the Short Fatigue Crack Initiation and Propagation Characteristics of Biomedical α/β Titanium Alloys, Metal Mater. Trans A, 2000, 31, p 1949–1958

  5. 5.

    S.R. Thompson, J.J. Ruschau, and T. Nicholas, Influence of Residual Stresses on High Cycle Fatigue Strength of Ti-6Al-4V Subjected to Foreign Object Damage, Int. J Fatigue, 2001, 23, p 405–412

  6. 6.

    H. Yu, F. Li, Z. Wang, and X. Zeng, Fatigue Performances of Selective Laser Melted Ti-6Al-4V Alloy: Influence of Surface Finishing, Hot Isostatic Pressing and Heat Treatments, Int. J. Fatigue, 2019, 120, p 175–183

  7. 7.

    J. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Ren, J. Dong, and K. Yang, Effect of Cold Deformation on Corrosion Fatigue Behavior of Nickel-Free High Nitrogen Austenitic Stainless Steel for Coronary Stent Application, J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2018, 34, p 660–665

  8. 8.

    Y.G. Liu, M.Q. Li, and H.J. Liu, Nanostructure and Surface Roughness in the Processed Surface Layer of Ti-6Al-4V via Shot Peening, Mater. Character, 2017, 123, p 83–90

  9. 9.

    M. Thomas and M. Jackson, The Role of Temperature and Alloy Chemistry on Subsurface Deformation Mechanisms During Shot Peening of Titanium Alloys, Scr. Mater., 2012, 66, p 1065–1068

  10. 10.

    H. Mughrabi, H.W. Hoppel, and M. Kautz, Fatigue and Microstructure of Ultrafine-Grained Metals Produced by Severe Plastic Deformation, Scr. Mater., 2004, 51, p 807–812

  11. 11.

    X. Li, T.F. Jing, M.M. Lu, R. Xu, B.Y. Liang, and J.W. Zhang, Fatigue Property of Nano-grained Delaminated Low-Carbon Steel Sheet, J. Mater. Sci. Technol., 2011, 27, p 364–368

  12. 12.

    O. Hatamleh, The Effects of Laser Peening and Shot Peening on Mechanical Properties in Friction Stir Welded 7075-T7351 Aluminum, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2008, 17, p 688–694

  13. 13.

    K. Wu, X. Yuan, Z. Hu, H. Wang, T. Li, Z. Yu, and J. Luo, Improvement of Al/Steel Tungsten Inert Gas Welding-Brazing Joint by High-Energy Shot Peening, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2019, 28, p 2937–2945

  14. 14.

    B.N. Mordyuk and G.I. Prokopenko, Fatigue Life Improvement of Alpha-Titanium by Novel Ultrasonically Assisted Technique, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2006, 437, p 396–405

  15. 15.

    A. Amanov, I.S. Cho, D.E. Kim, and Y.S. Pyun, Fretting Wear and Friction Reduction of CP Titanium and Ti-6Al-4V Alloy by Ultrasonic Nanocrystalline Surface Modification, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2012, 207, p 135–142

  16. 16.

    L. Xie, Y. Wen, K. Zhan, L. Wang, C. Jiang, and V. Ji, Characterization on Surface Mechanical Properties of Ti-6Al-4V After Shot Peening, J. Alloys Compd., 2016, 666, p 65–70

  17. 17.

    D. Gallitelli, D. Retraint, and E. Rouhaud, Comparison Between Conventional Shot Peening (SP) and Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (SMAT) on a Titanium Alloy, Adv. Mater. Res., 2014, 996, p 964–968

  18. 18.

    T. Roland, D. Retraint, K. Lu, and J. Lu, Fatigue Life Improvement Through Surface Nanostructuring of Stainless Steel by Means of Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment, Scr. Mater., 2006, 54, p 1949–1954

  19. 19.

    Y.K. Gao and X.R. Wu, Experimental Investigation and Fatigue Life Prediction for 7475-T7351 Aluminum Alloy With and Without Shot Peening-Induced Residual Stresses, Acta Mater., 2011, 59, p 3737–3747

  20. 20.

    F.J. Gil, J.A. Planell, A. Padros, and C. Aparicio, The Effect of Shot Blasting and Heat Treatment on the Fatigue Behavior of Titanium for Dental Implant Applications, Dental Mater., 2007, 23, p 486–491

  21. 21.

    Y.G. Liu, M.Q. Li, and H.J. Liu, Surface Nanocrystallization and Gradient Structure Developed in the Bulk TC4 Alloy Processed by Shot Peening, J. Alloys Compd., 2016, 685, p 186–193

  22. 22.

    T. Wang, J. Yu, and B. Dong, Surface Nanocrystallization Induced by Shot Peening and Its Effect on Corrosion Resistance of 1Cr18Ni9Ti Stainless Steel, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2006, 200, p 4777–4781

  23. 23.

    J.H. Hollomon, Tensile Deformation, Trans. AIME, 1945, 162, p 268–290

  24. 24.

    G.E. Dieter, Mechanical Metallurgy, McGraw-Hill book Company, Singapore, 1988, p 390–391

  25. 25.

    G. Liu, J. Lu, and K. Lu, Surface Nanocrystallization of 316L Stainless Steel Induced by Ultrasonic Shot Peening, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2000, 286, p 91–95

  26. 26.

    K.Y. Zhu, A. Vassel, F. Brisset, K. Lu, and J. Lu, Nanostructure Formation Mechanism of α-Titanium Using SMAT, Acta Mater., 2004, 52, p 4101–4110

  27. 27.

    S. Kumar, K. Chattopadhyay, S.R. Singh, and V. Singh, Surface Nanostructuring of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Through Ultrasonic Shot Peening, Int. J. Surf. Sci. Eng., 2017, 11, p 23–35

  28. 28.

    T. Balusamy, T.S.N.S. Narayanan, and K. Ravichandran, Influence of Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (SMAT) on the Corrosion Behaviour of AISI, 304 Stainless Steel, Corr. Sci., 2013, 74, p 332–344

  29. 29.

    Y.W. Zhu, G. Zhang, W.S. Feng, L. Jun, and Y.Z. Feng, Effect of Surface Roughness on Evolution of Residual Stress Field Induced by Shot Peening, Mater. Sci. Technol., 2010, 18, p 523–527

  30. 30.

    B.X. Feng, X.N. Mao, G.J. Yang, L.L. Yu, and X.D. Wu, Residual Stress field and Thermal Relaxation Behavior of Shot-Peened TC4-DT Titanium Alloy, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2009, 512, p 105–108

  31. 31.

    X.H. Chen, J. Lu, L. Lu, and K. Lu, Tensile Properties of a Nanocrystalline 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel, Scr. Mater., 2005, 52, p 1039–1044

  32. 32.

    O. Hatamleh, Effects of Peening on Mechanical Properties in Friction Stir Welded 2195 Aluminum Alloy Joints, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2008, 492, p 168–176

  33. 33.

    S. Kumar, G.S. Rao, K. Chattopadhyay, G.S. Mahobia, N.C.S. Srinivas, and V. Singh, Effect of Surface Nanostructure on Tensile Behavior of Superalloy IN718, Mater. Des., 2014, 62, p 76–82

  34. 34.

    S. Bagherifard and M. Guagliano, Fatigue Behavior of a Low-Alloy Steel with Nanostructured Surface Obtained by Severe Shot Peening, Eng. Fract. Mech., 2012, 81, p 56–68

  35. 35.

    P.Q. Trung, N.W. Khun, and D.L. Butler, Effect of Shot Peening Process on the Fatigue Life of Shot Peened Low Alloy Steel, J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 2018, 140(208), p 011013

  36. 36.

    V. Pandey, K. Chattopadhyay, N.C.S. Srinivas, and V. Singh, Role of Ultrasonic Shot Peening on Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of 7075 Aluminium Alloy, Int. J. Fatigue, 2017, 103, p 426–435

  37. 37.

    N. Singh and V. Singh, Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Ti Alloy IMI, 834 at Room Temperature, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2002, 325, p 324–332

  38. 38.

    Z.F. Zhang, H.C. Gu, and X.L. Tan, Low Cycle Fatigue Behaviors of Commercial-Purity Titanium, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 1998, 252, p 85–92

  39. 39.

    J. Zhou, D. Retraint, Z. Sun, and P. Kanoute, Comparative Study of the Effects of Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment and Conventional Shot Peening on Low Cycle Fatigue of a 316L Stainless Steel, Surf. Coat. Technol., 2018, 349, p 556–566

  40. 40.

    B. Sahoo, R.K. Satpathy, K. Prasad, S. Ahmed, and V. Kumar, Effect of Shot Peening on Low Cycle Fatigue Life of Compressor Disc of a Typical Fighter Class Aero-Engine, Procedia Eng., 2013, 55, p 144–148

  41. 41.

    T. Dorr and L. Wagner, Fatigue Response of Various Titanium Alloys to Shot Peening, Trans. Eng. Sci., 1999, 25, p 349–357

Download references


The authors are grateful to M/s Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited, Hyderabad (India), for providing the Ti-6Al-4V alloy.

Author information

Correspondence to Sanjeev Kumar.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kumar, S., Chattopadhyay, K. & Singh, V. Optimization of the Duration of Ultrasonic Shot Peening for Enhancement of Fatigue Life of the Alloy Ti-6Al-4V. J. of Materi Eng and Perform (2020).

Download citation


  • fatigue strength
  • nanostructure
  • tensile strength
  • Ti-6Al-4V
  • ultrasonic shot peening