Bonding Performance of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer-to-Concrete Joints under the Effect of Corrosion Cracking

  • 15 Accesses


Externally bonded (EB) carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRPs) have been progressively considered for application in concrete structures. However, the corrosion of reinforcing steel bars (rebars) in reinforced concrete (RC), which is more common in coastal environments than in inland environments, can degrade structural performance. The bonding performance of FRP-to-concrete joints can be further deteriorated by the degradation of the interfacial bonding behavior between the rebar (or rebars) and concrete cross-sectional area reduction at the steel bar plane induced by rust expansion. In this study, the effect of rebar corrosion on the FRP bonding performance of RC components was experimentally investigated for the first time. Single shear tests assisted by a 3D optical displacement measurement system were used to obtain the full-field distribution of specimen displacements. The test results show that, although the corrosion level and diameter of the steel bar slightly affected the bonding strength of FRP-to-concrete, the corrosion crack width increased as the steel bar corrosion level increased, which affected the failure mode. Hence, as the corrosion level of the steel bars increased, the likelihood of concrete cover separation increased. Finally, a modified strength design model accounting for the rebar corrosion level was proposed in this paper.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 408

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15


  1. 1.

    P.K. Mehta, Durability of Concrete-Fifty Years of Progress, ACI, Spec. Publ., 1991, 126, p 1–32

  2. 2.

    M. Yunovich and N.G. Thompson, Corrosion of Highway Bridges: Economic Impact and Control Methodologies, Concr. Int., 2003, 25(1), p 52–57

  3. 3.

    J.P. Broomfield, Corrosion of Steel in Concrete: Understanding, Investigation and Repair. CRC Press, 2003

  4. 4.

    K. Wei. China Corrosion Investigation Report. Chemical industry Press, 2003 (in Chinese)

  5. 5.

    L.C. Hollaway, A Review of the Present and Future Utilisation of FRP Composites in the Civil Infrastructure with Reference to Their Important In-Service Properties, Constr. Build. Mater., 2010, 24(12), p 2419–2445

  6. 6.

    W. Li and C.K.Y. Leung, Effect of Shear Span-Depth Ratio on Mechanical Performance of RC Beams Strengthened in Shear with U-Wrapping FRP Strips, Compos. Struct., 2017, 177, p 141–157

  7. 7.

    W. Li and C.K.Y. Leung, Shear Span-Depth Ratio Effect on Behavior of RC Beam Shear Strengthened with Full-Wrapping FRP Strip, J. Compos. Constr., 2016, 20(3), p 04015067

  8. 8.

    A.H. Al-Saidy and K.S. Al-Jabri, Effect of Damaged Concrete Cover on the Behavior of Corroded Concrete Beams Repaired with CFRP Sheets, Compos. Struct., 2011, 93(7), p 1775–1786

  9. 9.

    H. Fazli, A.Y.M. Yassin, N. Shafiq et al., Effective Bond Length of CFRP Sheets Externally Bonded to Concrete Beams Under Marine Environment, Constr. Build. Mater., 2018, 167, p 726–738

  10. 10.

    C. Lee, J.F. Bonacci, M.D.A. Thomas et al., Accelerated Corrosion and Repair of Reinforced Concrete Columns Using Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer Sheets, Can. J. Civ. Eng., 2000, 27(5), p 941–948

  11. 11.

    M.Z. Naser, R.A. Hawileh, and J.A. Abdalla, Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites in Strengthening Reinforced Concrete Structures: A Critical Review, Eng. Struct., 2019, 198, p 109542

  12. 12.

    A.K. Al-Tamimi, R. Hawileh, J. Abdalla, and H.A. Rasheed, Effects of Ratio of CFRP Plate Length to Shear Span and End Anchorage on Flexural Behavior of SCC RC Beams, J. Compos. Constr., 2011, 15(6), p 908–919

  13. 13.

    R.A. Hawileh, W. Nawaz, J.A. Abdalla, and E.I. Saqan, Effect of Flexural CFRP Sheets on Shear Resistance of Reinforced Concrete Beams, Compos. Struct., 2015, 122, p 468–476

  14. 14.

    R.A. Hawileh, H.A. Musto, J.A. Abdalla, and M.Z. Naser, Finite Element Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Beams Externally Strengthened in Flexure with Side-Bonded FRP Laminates, Compos. Part B Eng., 2019, 106, p 952

  15. 15.

    A.S.D. Salama, R.A. Hawileh, and J.A. Abdalla, Performance of Externally Strengthened RC Beams with Side-Bonded CFRP Sheets, Compos. Struct., 2019, 212, p 281–290

  16. 16.

    J.A. Abdalla, A.S. Abu-Obeidah, R.A. Hawileh, and H.A. Rasheed, Shear Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Externally-Bonded Aluminum Alloy Plates: An Experimental Study, Constr. Build. Mater., 2016, 128, p 24–37

  17. 17.

    R.A. Hawileh, H.A. Rasheed, J.A. Abdalla, and A. Al-Tamimi, Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with Externally Bonded Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Polymer Systems, Mater. Des., 2014, 53, p 972–982

  18. 18.

    S.S. Choobbor, R.A. Hawileh, A. Abu-Obeidah, and J.A. Abdalla, Performance of Hybrid Carbon and Basalt FRP Sheets in Strengthening Concrete Beams in Flexure, Compos. Struct., 2019, 227, p 111337

  19. 19.

    Y. Zhou, L. Dang, L. Sui et al., Experimental Study on the Bond Behavior Between Corroded Rebar and Concrete Under Dual Action of FRP Confinement and Sustained Loading, Constr. Build. Mater., 2017, 155, p 605–616

  20. 20.

    A.K. Al-Tamimi, R.A. Hawileh, J.A. Abdalla, H.A. Rasheed, and R. Al-Mahaidi, Durability of the Bond Between CFRP Plates and Concrete Exposed to Harsh Environments, J. Mater. Civ. Eng., 2014, 27(9), p 04014252

  21. 21.

    S. Guzmán, J.C. Gálvez, and J.M. Sancho, Cover Cracking of Reinforced Concrete Due to Rebar Corrosion Induced by Chloride Penetration, Cem. Concr. Res., 2011, 41(8), p 893–902

  22. 22.

    L. Chernin and D.V. Val, Prediction of Corrosion-Induced Cover Cracking in Reinforced Concrete Structures, Constr. Build. Mater., 2011, 25(4), p 1854–1869

  23. 23.

    Y. Liu and R. Weyers, Modeling the Time-to-Corrosion Cracking in Chloride Contaminated Reinforced Concrete Structures, ACI, Mater. J., 1998, 95(6), p 675–681

  24. 24.

    J.G. Teng, J.F. Chen, S.T. Smith et al., Behaviour and Strength of FRP-Strengthened RC Structures: A State-of-the-Art Review, Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. Struct. Build., 2003, 156(1), p 51–62

  25. 25.

    G.G. Triantafyllou, T.C. Rousakis, and A.I. Karabinis, Corroded RC Beams Patch Repaired and Strengthened in Flexure with Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Laminates, Compos. B Eng., 2017, 112, p 125–136

  26. 26.

    J. Xie and R. Hu, Experimental Study on Rehabilitation of Corrosion-Damaged Reinforced Concrete Beams with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer, Constr. Build. Mater., 2013, 38, p 708–716

  27. 27.

    C. Czaderski, K. Soudki, and M. Motavalli, Front and Side View Image Correlation Measurements on FRP to Concrete Pull-Off Bond Tests, J. Compos. Constr., 2010, 14(4), p 451–463

  28. 28.

    Y. Yun and Y.F. Wu, Durability of CFRP–Concrete Joints Under Freeze–Thaw Cycling, Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 2011, 65(3), p 401–412

  29. 29.

    J. Shi, H. Zhu, Z. Wu et al., Bond Behavior Between Basalt Fiber–Reinforced Polymer Sheet and Concrete Substrate Under the Coupled Effects of Freeze-Thaw Cycling and Sustained Load, J. Compos. Constr., 2012, 17(4), p 530–542

  30. 30.

    C. Carloni and K.V. Subramaniam, Investigation of Sub-Critical Fatigue Crack Growth in FRP/Concrete Cohesive Interface Using Digital Image Analysis, Compos. B Eng., 2013, 51, p 35–43

  31. 31.

    Y.F. Wu, L. He, and L.C. Bank, Bond-Test Protocol for Plate-to-Concrete Interface Involving All Mechanisms, J. Compos. Constr., 2015, 20(1), p 04015022

  32. 32.

    CMC, Code for Design of Concrete Structures (GB50010-2010). China Ministry of Construction: Beijing, 2010 (in Chinese)

  33. 33.

    F.M. Mukhtar and R.M. Faysal, A Review of Test Methods for Studying the FRP-Concrete Interfacial Bond Behavior, Constr. Build. Mater., 2018, 169, p 877–887

  34. 34.

    C. Mazzotti, M. Savoia, and B. Ferracuti, A New Single-Shear Set-Up for Stable Debonding of FRP–Concrete Joints, Constr. Build. Mater., 2009, 23(4), p 1529–1537

  35. 35.

    Y. Zhou, X. Chen, Z. Fan et al., Bond Behaviors of FRP-to-Concrete Interface Under the Control of a Novel End-Anchorage System, Compos. Struct., 2017, 168, p 130–142

  36. 36.

    American Concrete Institute (ACI), Guide for the Design and Construction of Externally Bonded FRP Systems for Strengthening Concrete Structures. 440.2R-17 2017, Farmington Hills, MI

  37. 37.

    American Concrete Institute, Concrete Repair Guide (ACI, 546R-04), American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, 2004

  38. 38.

    ICRI Guideline No. 03730, Guide for Surface Preparation for the Repair of Deteriorated Concrete Resulting from Reinforcing Steel Corrosion, International Concrete Repair Institute (ICRI), 1995

  39. 39.

    X. Wang, X. Song, M. Zhang et al., Experimental Comparison of Corrosion Unevenness and Expansive Cracking Between Accelerated Corrosion Methods Used in Laboratory Research, Constr. Build. Mater., 2017, 153, p 36–43

  40. 40.

    M.M. Kashani, A.J. Crewe, and N.A. Alexander, Nonlinear Stress–Strain Behaviour of Corrosion-Damaged Reinforcing Bars Including Inelastic Buckling, Eng. Struct., 2013, 48, p 417–429

  41. 41.

    M. Badawi and K. Soudki, Control of Corrosion-Induced Damage in Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Laminates, J. Compos. Constr.., 2005, 9, p 195–201

  42. 42.

    T.A.E. Maaddawy and K.A. Soudki, Effectiveness of Impressed Current Technique to Simulate Corrosion of Steel Reinforcement in Concrete, J. Mater. Civ. Eng., 2003, 15(1), p 41–47

  43. 43.

    ASTM G1-90, Standard Practice for Preparing, Cleaning, and Evaluating Corrosion test Specimens, ASTM Int’l, 2011

  44. 44.

    M.A. Sutton, J.J. Orteu, and H. Schreier, Image Correlation for Shape, Motion and Deformation Measurements: Basic Concepts, Theory and Applications, Springer, Berlin, 2009

  45. 45.

    T. Vidal, A. Castel, and R. Francois, Analyzing Crack Width to Predict Corrosion in Reinforced Concrete, Cem. Concr. Res., 2004, 34(1), p 165–174

  46. 46.

    C. Alonso, C. Andrade, J. Rodriguez et al., Factors Controlling Cracking of Concrete Affected by Reinforcement Corrosion, Mater. Struct., 1998, 31(7), p 435–441

  47. 47.

    R. Zhang, A. Castel, and R. François, Concrete Cover Cracking with Reinforcement Corrosion of RC Beam During Chloride-Induced Corrosion Process, Cem. Concr. Res., 2010, 40(3), p 415–425

  48. 48.

    Y. Zhao, J. Yu, B. Hu et al., Crack Shape and Rust Distribution in Corrosion-Induced Cracking Concrete, Corros. Sci., 2012, 55, p 385–393

  49. 49.

    J. Yao, J.G. Teng, and J.F. Chen, Experimental Study on FRP-to-Concrete Bonded Joints, Compos. B Eng., 2005, 36(2), p 99–113

  50. 50.

    N.F. Grace and S.B. Singh, Durability Evaluation of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Strengthened Concrete Beams: Experimental Study and Design, ACI, Struct. J., 2005, 102(1), p 40–53

  51. 51.

    J.F. Chen and J.G. Teng, Anchorage Strength Models for FRP and Steel Plates Bonded to Concrete, J. Struct. Eng., 2001, 127(7), p 784–791

  52. 52.

    D. Van Gemert, Force Transfer in Epoxy Bonded Steel/Concrete Joints, Int. J. Adhes. Adhes., 1980, 1(2), p 67–72

  53. 53.

    T. Tanaka, Shear Resisting Mechanism of Reinforced Concrete Beams with CFS as Shear Reinforcement. Graduation thesis, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido, Japan, 1996

  54. 54.

    R. Niedermeier, Stellungnahme zur richtlinie für das verkleben von betonbauteilen durch ankleben von stahllaschen–entwurf märz 1996, Schreiben Nr. 1390 vom 30.10.1996 des Lehrstuhls für Massivbau, TU München, 1996

  55. 55.

    H. Yoshizawa, Analysis of Debonding Fracture properties of CFS strengthened RC member subject to tension, Non-Metallic (FRP) Reinforcement for Concrete Structures, in Proceedings of 3rd International Symposium The Japan Concrete Institute, 1997, p 287–294

  56. 56.

    P. Holzenkämpfer, Ingenieurmodelle des verbunds geklebter bewehrung für betonbauteile. Deutscher Ausschuss Fuer Stahlbeton, 1997.

  57. 57.

    T. Maeda, Y. Asano, Y. Sato, T. Yeda, Y. Kakuta, A Study on Bond Mechanism of Carbon Fibre Sheet. Non-Metallic (FRP) Reinforcement for Concrete Structures, in Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium, Sapporo, Japan, 1997, p 279–285.

  58. 58.

    Y. Sato, K. Kimura, and Y. Kobatake, Bond Behaviors Between CFRP Sheet and Concrete, J. Struct. Constr. Eng., 1997, 500, p 75–82 (in Japanese)

  59. 59.

    U. Neubauer, F.S. Rostásy, Design Aspects of Concrete Structures Strengthened with Externally Bonded CFRP Plates, in: Forde (Ed.) Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Structural Faults and Repairs, Engineering Technics Press, Edinburgh, UK, 1997, p 109–118

  60. 60.

    A. Khalifa, W.J. Gold, A. Nanni et al., Contribution of Externally Bonded FRP to Shear Capacity of RC Flexural Members, J. Compos. Constr., 1998, 2(4), p 195–202

  61. 61.

    O. Chaallal, M.J. Nollet, and D. Perraton, Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams with Externally Bonded Fiber-Reinforced-Plastic Plates: Design Guidelines for Shear and Flexure, Can. J. Civ. Eng., 1998, 25(4), p 692–704

  62. 62.

    K. Izumo, N. Saeki, M. Fukao, and T. Horiguchi, Bond Behavior and Strength Between Fiber Sheets and Concrete, Transactions of the Japan Concrete Institute., 1999, 21, p 423–430

  63. 63.

    JCI (Japanese Concrete Institute), Technical Report of Technical Committee on Retrofit Technology, in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Latest Achievement of Technology and Research on Retrofitting Concrete Structures. Kyoto, Japan, 2003, p 4–42

  64. 64.

    J. Dai, T. Ueda, and Y. Sato, Development of the Nonlinear Bond Stress–Slip Model of Fiber Reinforced Plastics Sheet–Concrete Interfaces with a Simple Method, J. Compos. Constr., 2005, 9(1), p 52–62

  65. 65.

    X.Z. Lu, J.G. Teng, L.P. Ye et al., Bond–Slip Models for FRP Sheets/Plates Bonded to Concrete, Eng. Struct., 2005, 27(6), p 920–937

  66. 66.

    J. Yang and Y.F. Wu, Interfacial Stresses of FRP Strengthened Concrete Beams: Effect of Shear Deformation, Compos. Struct., 2007, 80(3), p 343–351

  67. 67.

    Y.W. Zhou, Analytical and Experimental Study on the Strength and Ductility of FRP-Reinforced High Strength Concrete Beam, Ph.D. thesis, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, China, 2009

  68. 68.

    Y.F. Wu and C. Jiang, Quantification of Bond-Slip Relationship for Externally Bonded FRP-to-Concrete Joints, J. Compos. Constr., 2013, 17(5), p 673–686

  69. 69.

    Z. Qi and G. Zhenhai, Investigation on Shear Strength and Shear Strain of Concrete, Journal of Building Structures, 1992, 5, p 001 (in Chinese)

Download references


The authors would like to express their thanks to the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Project Nos. 51678365, 51878415 and 51908373) for funding this research.

Author information

Correspondence to Wei-Wen Li.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Yang, X., Pan, Z., Li, W. et al. Bonding Performance of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer-to-Concrete Joints under the Effect of Corrosion Cracking. J. of Materi Eng and Perform (2020) doi:10.1007/s11665-020-04560-z

Download citation


  • bonding behavior
  • fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP)
  • FRP-to-concrete joints
  • steel corrosion