The effect of the machining-induced residual stresses and microstructural changes on the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) initiation in 304 austenitic stainless steel was investigated. The residual stress was measured with an x-ray diffractometer, and the microstructural changes were characterized by the electron backscatter diffraction. Through a load-free testing in the boiling magnesium chloride solution, the subsurface zone of high SCC sensitivity was identified by detecting the depth of the micro-cracks. The development of the SCC micro-crack was related to the machining-induced residual stresses and microstructural changes. The results showed that the SCC micro-crack was prone to propagate in the subsurface where the residual stress was larger than 200 MPa, along with high-density grain boundary. Additionally, the SCC micro-crack initiation was observed to develop along the machining-induced slip bands.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
D. Merezhko, M. Merezhko, M. Gussev, J. Busby, O. Maksimkin, M. Short, and F. Garner, Investigation of Pitting Corrosion in Sensitized Modified High-Nitrogen 316LN Steel After Neutron Irradiation, Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems, Springer, Berlin, 2017, p 1125–1140
O.M. Alyousif and R. Nishimura, The Effect of Test Temperature on SCC Behavior of Austenitic Stainless Steels in Boiling Saturated Magnesium Chloride Solution, Corros. Sci., 2006, 48(12), p 4283–4293
D.T. Spencer, M.R. Edwards, M.R. Wenman, C. Tsitsios, G.G. Scatigno, and P.R. Chard-Tuckey, The Initiation and Propagation of Chloride-Induced Transgranular Stress-Corrosion Cracking (TGSCC) of 304L Austenitic Stainless Steel Under Atmospheric Conditions, Corros. Sci., 2014, 88, p 76–88
O.M. Alyousif and R. Nishimura, The Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior of Austenitic Stainless Steels in Boiling Magnesium Chloride Solutions, Corros. Sci., 2007, 49(7), p 3040–3051
J.P. Davim, Surface Integrity in Machining, Springer, Berlin, 2010
A. Turnbull, K. Mingard, J.D. Lord, B. Roebuck, D.R. Tice, K.J. Mottershead, N.D. Fairweather, and A.K. Bradbury, Sensitivity of Stress Corrosion Cracking of Stainless Steel to Surface Machining and Grinding Procedure, Corros. Sci., 2011, 53(10), p 3398–3415
S. Ghosh and V. Kain, Effect of Surface Machining and Cold Working on the Ambient Temperature Chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility of AISI, 304L Stainless Steel, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2010, 527(3), p 679–683
S.G. Acharyya, A. Khandelwal, V. Kain, A. Kumar, and I. Samajdar, Surface Working of 304L Stainless Steel: Impact on Microstructure, Electrochemical Behavior and SCC Resistance, Mater. Charact., 2012, 72, p 68–76
N. Zhou, R. Lin Peng, R. Pettersson, M. Schönning, Residual Stress in Stainless Steels After Surface Grinding and its Effect on Chloride Induced SCC, in International Conference on Residual Stresses, 3–7 July 2016, Sydney, Australia, 2016, pp. 289–294
S. Ghosh and V. Kain, Microstructural Changes in AISI, 304L Stainless Steel Due to Surface Machining: Effect on its Susceptibility to Chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking, J. Nucl. Mater., 2010, 403(1), p 62–67
T. Shoji, Progress in the Mechanistic Understanding of BWR SCC and its Implication to Prediction of SCC Growth Behavior in Plants, in 11th International Symposium on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems-Water Reactors, 2003 (Stevenson Washington, USA), NACE
O. Raquet, E. Herms, F. Vaillant, and T. Couvant, SCC of Cold-Worked Austenitic Stainless Steels in PWR Conditions, Adv. Mater. Sci., 2007, 7(1), p 33–46
L. Chang, J. Duff, M.G. Burke, F. Scenini, SCC Initiation in the Machined Austenitic Stainless Steel 316L in Simulated PWR Primary Water, in Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems, 2017, Springer, pp 811-827
W. Zhang, K. Fang, Y. Hu, S. Wang, and X. Wang, Effect of Machining-Induced Surface Residual Stress on Initiation of Stress Corrosion Cracking in 316 Austenitic Stainless Steel, Corros. Sci., 2016, 108, p 173–184
H. Wu, C. Li, K. Fang, F. Xue, G. Zhang, K. Luo, and L. Wang, Effect of Machining on the Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior in Boiling Magnesium Chloride Solution of Austenitic Stainless Steel, Mater. Corros., 2018, 69(4), p 519–526
S. Ghosh, V.P.S. Rana, V. Kain, V. Mittal, and S.K. Baveja, Role of Residual Stresses Induced by Industrial Fabrication on Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility of Austenitic Stainless Steel, Mater. Des., 2011, 32(7), p 3823–3831
N. Zhou, R. Pettersson, R.L. Peng, and M. Schönning, Effect of Surface Grinding on Chloride Induced SCC of 304L, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2016, 658, p 50–59
A. BenRhouma, H. Sidhom, C. Braham, J. Lédion, and M.E. Fitzpatrick, Effects of Surface Preparation on Pitting Resistance, Residual Stress, and Stress Corrosion Cracking in Austenitic Stainless Steels, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2001, 10(5), p 507–514
A. Grabulov, R. Petrov, and H.W. Zandbergen, EBSD Investigation of the Crack Initiation and TEM/FIB Analyses of the Microstructural Changes Around the Cracks Formed Under Rolling Contact Fatigue (RCF), Int. J. Fatigue, 2010, 32(3), p 576–583
Y. Motoyashiki, A. Brückner-Foit, and A. Sugeta, Microstructural Influence on Small Fatigue Cracks in a Ferritic–Martensitic Steel, Eng. Fract. Mech., 2008, 75(3), p 768–778
W. Zhang, X. Wang, Y. Hu, and S. Wang, Quantitative Studies of Machining-Induced Microstructure Alteration and Plastic Deformation in AISI, 316 Stainless Steel Using EBSD, J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 2018, 27(2), p 434–446
L. Zhu, Y. Yan, J. Li, L. Qiao, Z. Li, and A.A. Volinsky, Stress Corrosion Cracking at Low Loads: Surface Slip and Crystallographic Analysis, Corros. Sci., 2015, 100, p 619–626
L.J. Qiao, K.W. Gao, A.A. Volinsky, and X.Y. Li, Discontinuous Surface Cracks During Stress Corrosion Cracking of Stainless Steel Single Crystal, Corros. Sci., 2011, 53(11), p 3509–3514
J.C. Fisher, E.W. Hart, and R.H. Pry, Theory of Slip-Band Formation, Phys. Rev., 1952, 87(6), p 958
T. Magnin, A. Chambreuil, and B. Bayle, The Corrosion-Enhanced Plasticity Model for Stress Corrosion Cracking in Ductile FCC Alloys, Acta Mater., 1996, 44(4), p 1457–1470
J.C. Outeiro, D. Umbrello, and R. M’Saoubi, Experimental and Numerical Modelling of the Residual Stresses Induced in Orthogonal Cutting of AISI, 316L Steel, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 2006, 46(14), p 1786–1794
F. Valiorgue, J. Rech, H. Hamdi, P. Gilles, and J.M. Bergheau, 3D Modeling of Residual Stresses Induced in Finish Turning of an AISI304L Stainless Steel, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 2012, 53(1), p 77–90
R. Petrov, L. Kestens, A. Wasilkowska, and Y. Houbaert, Microstructure and Texture of a Lightly Deformed TRIP-Assisted Steel Characterized by Means of the EBSD Technique, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2007, 447(1), p 285–297
H. Gao, Y. Huang, W.D. Nix, and J.W. Hutchinson, Mechanism-Based Strain Gradient Plasticity—I. Theory, J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 1999, 47(6), p 1239–1263
“ASTM G36-94,” American Society for Testing and Materials (2006)
T. Magnin, R. Chieragatti, and R. Oltra, Mechanism of Brittle Fracture in a Ductile 316 Alloy During Stress Corrosion, Acta Metall. Mater., 1990, 38(7), p 1313–1319
W.F. Flanagan, P. Bastias, and B.D. Lichter, A Theory of Transgranular Stress-Corrosion Cracking, Acta Metall. Mater., 1991, 39(4), p 695–705
This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51875219, 51375182). The authors thank Analytical and Testing Center of HUST for FSEM and TEM measurements and Advanced Manufacturing and Technology Experiment Center of School of Mechanical Science and Engineering of HUST for residual stress measurements.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Zhang, W., Wu, H., Wang, S. et al. Investigation of Stress Corrosion Cracking Initiation in Machined 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel in Magnesium Chloride Environment. J. of Materi Eng and Perform (2020) doi:10.1007/s11665-020-04558-7
- austenitic stainless steel
- microstructural changes
- residual stress
- stress corrosion cracking