Advertisement

Improved High-Temperature Aluminum Alloys Containing Cerium

  • David WeissEmail author
Article
  • 47 Downloads

Abstract

A common rare earth (cerium) when added to aluminum in compositions up to the eutectic compositions of around 10 wt.% improves the high-temperature performance of aluminum alloys. In the early 1980s, some promising research and development efforts focused on powder metallurgy revealed that aluminum alloys containing 4 wt.% cerium exhibit high-temperature mechanical properties exceeding those of the best commercial aluminum casting alloys then in production. Those compositions, which also included high levels of iron, were difficult to process. Recently, magnesium replaces iron to reduce density and improve processing. Cerium oxide is an abundant rare earth oxide that is often discarded during the refining of more valuable rare earths such as Nd and Dy. Therefore, the economics are compelling for cerium as an alloy additive. In this review, we report results obtained during an investigation of the processing and properties of aluminum-cerium alloys produced via casting, extrusion and additive manufacturing. The results show mechanical properties are retained at higher temperatures than other aluminum alloys and show complete recovery of mechanical properties at room temperature when exposed to elevated temperatures as high as 500 °C for 1000 h. Alloys containing cerium also have superior corrosion properties when compared to most aluminum alloys.

Keywords

Al-Ce alloy aluminum cerium intermetallics nonferrous metals rare earths 

Notes

References

  1. 1.
    W.M. Griffith, R.E. Sanders, and G.J. Hildeman, Elevated Temperature Aluminum Alloys for Aerospace Applications, in High-Strength Powder Metallurgy Aluminum Alloys, Proceedings of a symposium sponsored by the Powder Metallurgy Committee of the Metallurgical Society of AIME, 17-18 Feb, 1982Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    X. Shikun, Y. Rongxi, G. Zhi, X. Xiang, H. Chagen, and G. Xiuyan, Effects of Rare Earth Ce on Casting Properties of Al-4.5Cu Alloy, Adv. Mater. Res., 2010, 136, p 1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    X. Shikun, A. Yongping, G. Zhi, X. Xiang, Y. Rongxi, G. Zhi, and G. Xiuyan, Effects of Ce Addition on the Mobility and Hot Tearing Tendency of Al-4.5Cu Alloy, Adv. Mater. Res., 2010, 146-147, p 481–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    N.A. Belov, Principles of Optimising the Structure of Creep-Resisting Casting Aluminum Alloys Using Transition Metals, J. Adv. Mater., 1994, 1(4), p 321–329Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nikolay A. Belov, Evgeniya A. Naumova, and Dmitry G. Eskin, Casting Alloys of the Al-Ce-Ni System: Microstructural Approach to Alloy Design, Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 1999, 271(1), p 134–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. Gröbner, D. Mirkovic, and R. Schmid-Fetzer, Thermodynamic Aspects of the Constitution, Grain Refining, and Solidification Enthalpies of Al-Ce-Si Alloys, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2004, 35, p 3349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    K. Gschneidner and F.W. Calderwood, The Al-Ce (Aluminum-Cerium) System, Bull. Alloy Phase Diagr., 1988, 9(6), p 669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Z. Sims et al., High Performance Aluminum-Cerium Alloys for High-Temperature Applications, Mater. Horiz., 2017, 4, p 1070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    X. Sun, Y. Lei, R. Zhou, and B. Zhang, Novel Compounds of Cerium Binary Alloys from High-Throughput First-Principles Calculations, J. Appl. Phys., 2018, 123, p 235102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    O. Ryen et al., Strengthening Mechanisms in Solid Solution Aluminum Alloys, Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2006, 37, p 1999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    ASM International, Metals Handbook, 9th ed., ASM International, Materials Park, 1987, p 589Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    D. Weiss, Development and Casting of High Cerium Content Aluminum Alloys. Transactions of the American Foundry Society 17-013, American Foundry Society, 2017Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    D. Weiss, Thermal Treatment of Al-Mg-Ce Alloys. Transaction of the American Foundry Society 18-101, American Foundry Society, 2018Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    D.R. Manca, et al., Microstructure and Properties of Novel Heat Resistant Al-Ce-Cu Alloy for Additive Manufacturing, Met. Mater Int. 2018.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12540-018-00211-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. Kesler et al., Liquid Direct Reactive Printing of Structural Aluminum Alloys, Appl. Mater Today, 2018, 13, p 339–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    J.S. Luna et al., Cerium Extraction by Metallothermic Reduction Using Cerium Oxide Powder Injection, J. Rare Earths, 2011, 29(1), p 74CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ASM International 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Eck IndustriesManitowocUSA

Personalised recommendations